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No castled crag so steeply hung,
To me but must surrender ;
No heart for me too tender.
Whose eyes my withering eyes infest,
He cares for day no longer; Whose board, or meat or wine, I've blessed, He thirsts alone for rest, for rest
For dust alone doth hunger. In Asia died the mighty Chan;
Where Cinnamon isles are shining Died negro prince and MussulmanNightly you hear at Ispahan
The dogs round carrion whining.
Byzantium was a blooming town,
And Venice smiled in beauty; Now, like dead leaf, their hosts sink down, Whoso collects that foliage brown
Will soon be quit his duty.
Into some port forsaken,
Must slumber ne'er to waken.
Though days and months be flyingNo soul to count the hours hath care; Years hence, you'll silent find and bare,
Death's city, lonely lying.
SPIRIT OF THE UNIVERSITIES.
TRINITY COLLEGE, DUBLIN.
July 25, 1879. I was absent from Dublin last month, and consequently was unable to send you my usual chronicle. Term ended meantime, and ended, on the whole, uneventfully. The only event of any importance was something of a disappointment. Dr. Maguire did not get the Fellowship. The successful candidate was Mr. Purser, who, as you know, was excluded previous to the Fawcett Act by his refusing the test. Mr. Purser's present success is really a vindication of the non-sectarian principle, just as much as Dr. Maguire's would be. But then Mr. Purser is not a Roman Catholic; and Dr. Maguire's election to Fellowship would be an open and visible refutation of the Protestant-Atmosphere cry. This, however, is not the only reason for regretting Dr. Maguire's temporary failure. There is another and a stronger one. We want more classical scholars. Since Mr. Tyrrell's election in 1868 we have had none but mathematicians as Fellows. Mr. Purser's election is simply carrying coals to Newcastle. Dr. Maguire, on the other hand, would add vastly to the weight and reputation of our classical school; so that it is no disparagement to Mr. Purser to feel that his success is a disappointing event. Dr. Maguire, however, means to go in again next year; and, as he secured the Madden Prize this year, his election is fairly certain. You know of course that “the Madden" is a sort of consolation prize (and a pretty valuable one, being considerably over 3001.) given to the best of the unsuccessful Fellowship candidates. I ought, perhaps, to apologise for volunteering this information; but I sometimes observe marvellous ignorance about college affairs, and that in what ought to be wellinformed quarters. The Saturday Review of the 5th July actually commits itself to the statement that at Dublin University residence is compulsory. The reviewer might with very little trouble have found out that it is nothing of the sort. Many a man has taken his degree at Dublin without ever being inside the walls, except when he was in the hall under examination. Even when terms are kept by attending lectures, actual collegiate residence is not compulsory. It is an advantage to any man to reside, and an especial advantage to those who compete for honours. But it is doubly absurd of the Saturday, first to invent the compulsory residence, and then to assign this imaginary grievance as one of the injustices to be righted by Earl Cairns's Bill for creating a fancy University. Of course nobody here, and I may say nobody anywhere else, for a moment supposes that the Conservative Government has suddenly become converted and conscience-stricken in the matter of “ the facilities for obtaining University degrees in Ireland.” The Cairns Bill is an electioneering move, neither more nor less. Government wants to please the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and through them to catch the Irish vote. They will not please the hierarchy except by chartering and endowing a strictly denominational University under complete clerical control, and if they did that, they would be no nearer to catching the Irish vote. What the bulk of the Irish Roman Catholic people care about is not the University, but the land. This cannot be too often repeated. In the meantime the Government, now coquetting with the O'Connor Don's proposals, and now throwing them over for an absurd scheme of its own, is running the very greatest risk of alienating a large number of its own supporters without the smallest chance of conciliating any of its enemies. Of course it does not matter to the Beaconsfield Cabinet that the whole movement is retrograde and obscurantist, and would tend to do incalculable damage to real University culture.
The debate in the Lords on the second reading was anything but an edifying exhibition. That politicians should turn their backs on themselves is nothing new, however. Hosea Biglow reminds us that
A marciful Providence fashioned us holler
There is at least one clear gain from this very unpleasant debate. We now know for certain that it is for money, and for the control of the University, that the Roman Catholics are standing out.
From the tenour of the debate (if it can be called a debate) on the second reading in the Commons, it seems certain that they will get what they want by some indirect means. It has been a melancholy affair from beginning to end._No party has come out of it with credit. We who are interested in University culture first, and politics perhaps not even second, must only derive such comfort as we may from reflecting that political changes seldom do any of the good or all of the harm that is expected from the principle they are supposed to embody.
Lord Belmore's Divinity School Bill has been withdrawn. I suppose the matter will be discussed again next session. The Church partisans are furious because the Belmore proposals were not accepted en bloc, and there has been a good deal of very unseemly squabbling about the proceedings of the Senate. Archdeacon Reichel in particular has quarrelled with everybody all round, being apparently of opinion that Trinity College wants to keep the Divinity School, in order to be able to give the D.D. degree to atheists. The general impression the whole thing gives to outsiders is, that the Church and the College are squabbling about 30001. a year; and, as the money happens to belong to the College, the Church is laying itself open to the charge of greed, which has always been the reproach of ecclesiastical bodies. I need hardly say that nothing is more improbable than any abuse of its powers by the College, and that the Divinity School might with absolute safety be left under the board until the future both of the University and of the Church be more settled. But it is characteristic of ecclesiastics to have no confidence in their fellow-men, and no faith in the stability of their own creeds unless backed by money
power. The Intermediate Schools' Examinations began on the 24th of June, and continued till the 3rd of this month. The papers are still in the hands of the examiners, and the result will not be known until some time next month. There is accordingly nothing at present to comment on.
You will not be surprised to hear that, with such weather as we have had, athletics have utterly languished. The annual sports were hardly missed, for the skies would assuredly have thrown cold water on them if the board had not.
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON,
July, 1879. This may be regarded as a remarkably business-like University. Born in the nineteenth century, it fully understands the advantages thereof. It holds the majority of its communications with its students and its graduates through the penny post, and only on one day in the year does the body corporate meet with academic pomp and ceremony. That day is the Presentation Day in the month of May, and this year there was a remarkably crowded and brilliant gathering. Two circumstances gave special interest to the occasion; it was the last appearance of Dr. Carpenter in the office of Registrar, which he laid down in June, after twenty-one years' service. It was also the first appearance of women as candidates upon a footing of perfect equality with men. The dais was accordingly graced with the presence of Lady Granville, Lady Stanley of Alderley, and other ladies. Two ladies of the six who passed the January matriculation examination in the honours division were presented—Sophia Bryant, who obtained the number of marks qualifying for second prize, and Rebecca Bragg, who did the same with regard to the third prize. The Chancellor (Earl Granville) subsequently remarked, with a delicacy which could not offend the modesty even of the lady referred to, that one of these ladies, who had achieved the highest distinction, was not only maintaining herself by her own intellectual labours, but also supporting a brother at the University of Durham, and another at the University of Cambridge.
The Chancellor's speech was marked by that polished style and good humour which never fail him. After referring to the loss the University had sustained during the year by the deaths of Dr. Brewer and Dr. Murchison, he spoke with great heartiness of the services of Dr. Carpenter, who might be said to have founded the University in its present form. Remarking on the success of the female candidates of the year, he bore tribute to the interest which Mrs. Grote and Mrs. Gerstenberg had taken in the University. He also stated that the loss to the country of Lord Derby's services had been the gain of the University, for he desired, on behalf of the Senate, to acknowledge the services which the late Foreign Secretary had rendered upon its committees and the interest he had shown in the University. He also congratulated the University on its growing influence upon the education of the country, and that, though so young, it was invited to send representatives to sit on the governing bodies of educational institutions, such as the London Society for the Extension of University Teaching, side by side with those of Oxford and Cambridge.
This was Lord Granville's graceful way of alluding to a bygone jealousy. When the society just named was started in 1876, with the idea of extending to the metropolis the system of higher education by means of lectures which had been applied so successfully in the provinces by the University of Cambridge, the three Universities were invited to co-operate in forming an examining board. As it was to work in London, the society could not well help inviting the University of London to join in the undertaking, and as theology was excluded from the list of subjects, it was not likely that any difficulties could arise. When, however, the proposal was brought before the Convocation of the University of Oxford, it was stoutly opposed by Professor Burrows, and there having been an organised “ whip against it, it was rejected on the ground that “the University of London is a purely secular body founded on principles foreign to those of Oxford.” Since then Prince Leopold has given his countenance to the London Society, and wiser counsels have prevailed in his University.
Mr. Lowe, in addressing his constituents on Presentation Day, expressed his approval of the scheme for a Northern University, as amended under the advice of Dr. Carpenter, but impressed upon the Government the necessity of incorporating with it what he styled “the abortive University of Durham.” He made a shorter speech than usual, and the only taste of that bitterness for which his hearers on these occasions listen, was at the expense of Durham. His keenest sarcasm was this: he said that a Commission was appointed which elaborated a scheme for the reform of the University of Durham, but that University had succeeded in setting up a legal impediment which had prevented anything being done ; he really thought that was the only thing the University had succeeded in. At the close of his speech he expressed, amid much laughter and cheering, a hope that he might be present on a like occasion next year, though in what capacity it was not for him to say.
Notwithstanding the enthusiasm with which he is always received on these occasions, it is officially announced that a Conservative club has been formed, and that Sir W. Gull, M.D., is to contest the seat at the general election. Of course it would not be becoming for me here to express any sympathy with either party ; but I may remark that the constituency has never yet been polled, Mr. Lowe having held an unchallenged seat since 1868, when the constituency came into existence under the last Reform Act. The proposed attack seems to be organised in the medical faculty.
Two changes are to be mentioned in the curriculum of the University. In the first place the B.A. is to be made more strictly linguistic, greater attention being given to the languages both ancient and modern, and an option allowed with regard to mathematics and philosophy. Lord Granville stated that this change was made with the approval of the heads of the colleges who sent up candidates to the University, and of the examiners. He added that the Senate attached great weight to their opinion, and was giving its attention to a recommendation made some time ago by Convocation, that it should arrange some means of making that opinion more easily available.
The other change is the probable institution of an examination in the theory and practice of education. The importance of this subject is rapidly gaining recognition, and Convocation at the annual meeting unanimously recommended the institution of a special examination upon it, open to graduates in arts science. A further recommendation that success should be recognised either by a new degree, or by granting the M.A. degree, Education being made a