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electioneering move, neither more nor less. Government wants to please the Roman Catholic hierarchy, and through them to catch the Irish vote. They will not please the hierarchy except by chartering and endowing a strictly denominational University under complete clerical control, and if they did that, they would be no nearer to catching the Irish vote. What the bulk of the Irish Roman Catholic people care about is not the University, but the land. This cannot be too often repeated. In the meantime the Government, now coquetting with the O'Connor Don's proposals, and now throwing them over for an absurd scheme of its own, is running the very greatest risk of alienating a large number of its own supporters without the smallest chance of conciliating any of its enemies. Of course it does not matter to the Beaconsfield Cabinet that the whole movement is retrograde and obscurantist, and would tend to do incalculable damage to real University culture.
The debate in the Lords on the second reading was anything but an edifying exhibition. That politicians should turn their backs on themselves is nothing new, however. Hosea Biglow reminds us that,
A marciful Providence fashioned us holler
There is at least one clear gain from this very unpleasant debate. We now know for certain that it is for money, and for the control of the University, that the Roman Catholics are standing out.
From the tenour of the debate (if it can be called a debate) on the second reading in the Commons, it seems certain that they will get what they want by some indirect means. It has been a melancholy affair from beginning to end. No party has come out of it with credit. We who are interested in University culture first, and politics perhaps not even second, must only derive such comfort as we may from reflecting that political changes seldom do any of the good or all of the harm that is expected from the principle they are supposed to embody.
Lord Belmore's Divinity School Bill has been withdrawn. I suppose the matter will be discussed again next session. The Church partisans are furious because the Belmore proposals were not accepted en bloc, and there has been a good deal of very unseemly squabbling about the proceedings of the Senate. Archdeacon Reichel in particular has quarrelled with everybody all round, being apparently of opinion that Trinity College wants to keep the Divinity School, in order to be able to give the D.D. degree to atheists. The general impression the whole thing gives to outsiders is, that the Church and the College are squabbling about 30001. a year; and, as the money happens to belong to the College, the Church is laying itself open to the charge of greed, which has always been the reproach of ecclesiastical bodies. I need hardly say that nothing is more improbable than any abuse of its powers by the College, and that the Divinity School might with absolute safety be left under the board until the future both of the University and of the Church be more settled. But it is characteristic of ecclesiastics to have no confidence in their fellow-men, and no faith in the stability of their own creeds unless backed by money and power.
The Intermediate Schools' Examinations began on the 24th of June, and continued till the 3rd of this month. The papers are still in the
hands of the examiners, and the result will not be known until some time next month. There is accordingly nothing at present to comment on.
You will not be surprised to hear that, with such weather as we have had, athletics have utterly languished. The annual sports were hardly missed, for the skies would assuredly have thrown cold water on them if the board had not.
UNIVERSITY OF LONDON,
July, 1879. This may be regarded as a remarkably business-like University. Born in the nineteenth century, it fully understands the advantages thereof. It holds the majority of its communications with its students and its graduates through the penny post, and only on one day in the year does the body corporate meet with academic pomp and ceremony. That day is the Presentation Day in the month of May, and this year there was a remarkably crowded and brilliant gathering. Two circumstances gave special interest to the occasion; it was the last appearance of Dr. Carpenter in the office of Registrar, which he laid down in June, after twenty-one years' service. It was also the first appearance of women as candidates upon a footing of perfect equality with men. The dais was accordingly graced with the presence of Lady Granville, Lady Stanley of Alderley, and other ladies. Two ladies of the six who passed the January matriculation examination in the honours division were presented—Sophia Bryant, who obtained the number of marks qualifying for second prize, and Rebecca Bragg, who did the same with regard to the third prize. The Chancellor (Earl Granville) subsequently remarked, with a delicacy which could not offend the modesty even of the lady referred to, that one of these ladies, who had achieved the highest distinction, was not only maintaining herself by her own intellectual labours, but also supporting a brother at the University of Durham, and another at the University of Cambridge.
The Chancellor's speech was marked by that polished style and good humour which never fail him. After referring to the loss the University bad sustained during the year by the deaths of Dr. Brewer and Dr. Murchison, he spoke with great heartiness of the services of Dr. Carpenter, who might be said to have founded the University in its present form. Remarking on the success of the female candidates of the year, he bore tribute to the interest which Mrs. Grote and Mrs. Gerstenberg had taken in the University. He also stated that the loss to the country of Lord Derby's services had been the gain of the University, for he desired, on behalf of the Senate, to acknowledge the services which the late Foreign Secretary had rendered upon its committees and the interest he had shown in the University. He also congratulated the University on its growing influence upon the education of the country, and that, though so young, it was invited to send representatives to sit on the governing bodies of educational institutions, such as the London Society for the Extension of University Teaching, side by side with those of Oxford and Cambridge.
This was Lord Granville's graceful way of alluding to a bygone jealousy. When the society just named was started in 1876, with the idea of extending to the metropolis the system of higher education by
means of lectures which had been applied so successfully in the provinces by the University of Cambridge, the three Universities were invited to co-operate in forming an examining board. As it was to work in London, the society could not well help inviting the University of London to join in the undertaking, and as theology was excluded from the list of subjects, it was not likely that any difficulties could arise. When, however, the proposal was brought before the Convocation of the University of Oxford, it was stoutly opposed by Professor Burrows, and there having been an organised " whip” against it, it was rejected on the ground that “the University of London is a purely secular body founded on principles foreign to those of Oxford.” Since then Prince Leopold has given his countenance to the London Society, and wiser counsels have prevailed in his University.
Mr. Lowe, in addressing his constituents on Presentation Day, expressed his approval of the scheme for a Northern University, as amended under the advice of Dr. Carpenter, but impressed upon the Government the necessity of incorporating with it what he styled “the abortive University of Durham.” He made a shorter speech than usual, and the only taste of that bitterness for which his hearers on these occasions listen, was at the expense of Durham. His keenest sarcasm was this: he said that a Commission was appointed which elaborated a scheme for the reform of the University of Durham, but that University had succeeded in setting up a legal impediment which had prevented anything being done ; he really thought that was the only thing the University had succeeded in. At the close of his speech he expressed, amid much laughter and cheering, a hope that he might be present on a like occasion next year, though in what capacity it was not for him to say.
Notwithstanding the enthusiasm with which he is always received on these occasions, it is officially announced that a Conservative club has been formed, and that Sir W. Gull, M.D., is to contest the seat at the general election. Of course it would not be becoming for me here to express any sympathy with either party ; but I may remark that the constituency has never yet been polled, Mr. Lowe having held an unchallenged seat since 1868, when the constituency came into existence under the last Reform Act. The proposed attack seems to be organised in the medical faculty.
Two changes are to be mentioned in the curriculum of the University. In the first place the B.A. is to be made more strictly linguistic, greater attention being given to the languages both ancient and modern, and an option allowed with regard to mathematics and philosophy. Lord Granville stated that this change was made with_the approval of the heads of the colleges who sent up candidates to the University, and of the examiners. He added that the Senate attached great weight to their opinion, and was giving its attention to a recommendation made some time ago by Convocation, that it should arrange some means of making that opinion more easily available.
The other change is the probable institution of an examination in the theory and practice of education. The importance of this subject is rapidly gaining recognition, and Convocation at the annual meeting unanimously recommended the institution of a special examination upon
graduates in arts science. A further recommendation that success should be recognised either by a new degree, or by granting the M.A. degree, Education being made a
fourth branch, was carried by a narrow majority. There is no doubt, however, that the Senate will speedily take some action in the matter.
It has been resolved that Dr. Carpenter's services as Registrar shall not cease without having some permanent recognition within the walls of the University. A most influential committee has been formed in order to present his portrait to the University—a compliment for which there is good precedent.
The admission of women is likely to prove a source of great strength to the University. Out of the large number of 919 candidates who came up for examination at the June matriculation, no less than sixtythree were women. This is an advance of fifty upon the number in January, and shows conclusively that the concession was not made before it was wanted. Not less remarkable is the success attained by the new class of candidates. Of the 525 who have passed 51 are women. The female percentage is, therefore, no less than 80-9, against 55.3 among the men, or 57:1 in the aggregate.
UNIVERSITY OF SEVILLE,
July, 1879. Among the number of our special schools may be included the institutions supported by the Economic Society; the Academia of Noble Arts, bearing the name of Santa Isabel ; the different schools established by the Sociedad de Fomento y Emulacion, the School for Equitation and many more. I will, however, only mention as especial those in which some auxiliary science is taught, such as the school for Latin grammar, where students from the University may, for a moderate fee, come during the hours of ten to eleven in the morning, and from seven to eight in the evening, to read up with far more profit than if they followed their studies in their own rooms. The Academia of Mathe. matics is another school for preparing candidates who aspire to obtain from the State appointments in any of the learned professions. Besides instruction in mathematics, drawing is taught, figure, topographical, and military, and both the English and French languages with all the fulness and depth necessary for admittance in any of the professions.
In the Academia of Commerce is given a complete instruction in mercantile science, embracing the different branches of arithmetic, exchange, arbitration, and book-keeping by double entry, caligraphy and shorthand, also French and English.
Among the scientific institutions for the advancement of education stands the Academia de Buenas Letras, established in the Royal Alcazar of Seville. As appears from documents preserved by this corporation, its origin was laid in the year 1751, when on the 16th April the first meeting was held in the house of Don Luis German y Ribon, but Señor
y Gonzales de Leon assures us that he held in his possession a note, which appears to us to be trustworthy, in which mention is made of this Academia having had its commencement on the 16th July, 1769. We are inclined to accept the assertion of Señor Gonzales, because the vicissitudes which this Academia suffered at the commencement were many, and very probably some of the books of Actas were mislaid, and
even all the documents belonging to the eighteen years which intervened between the dates of its foundations; but whether one or other date be the correct one, it certainly stands as one of the ancient institutions of this city, and moreover it is a positive fact that on the 19th July, 1752, Don Fernando VI. took it under his protection, giving it statutes, and granting to this society the right of apartments in the Royal Alcazar, for its use, and where it remained until November, 1809, when the society was dislodged by the Junta Central, since which time the Academie remained unhoused, losing the valuable archæological and numismatic treasures with which they had formed a beautiful museum in the Alcazar. The labours of this society were newly established in the Rectoral Hall of our University on the 5th September, 1820, continuing to hold their meetings there until 8th January, 1821, when the Government assigned to this Academia the Church of the former Convent of the Jesuit Fathers, called St. Hermenegildo; but when the Cortes came to Seville they judged that no place was more suitable than this for the congress to hold their sessions, and therefore the Academia was obliged to remove and suspend its labours. In 1825 this society became newly established in the Hospital del Espiritu Santo, where it remained until 16th of October, 1835, when the Government assigned to it the former College of San Alberto. Finally, when this convent was expropriated, the Queen granted to this society the privilege of once more occupying in the Alcazar the apartments which Ferdinand VI. had granted to it in former years. In the midst of this wandering life and many vicissitudes, the zeal of its members, so great and persevering in upholding the memory of the many illustrious sons of Seville who had honoured her by belonging to this corporation, has not cooled, and in our days, when so many literary institutions have been established, it still continues to enrol members.
Academia of Noble Arts of Santa Isabel. This Academy was founded by the renowned Don Bartolomé Murillo under the denomination of the School of Painting, which be directed and sustained in conjunction with other professors. Carlos III. took this Academy under his protection in 1775, gave it statutes and granted an annual rent of 25,000 reals (2507.) towards defraying the expenses of house, lighting, and professors. In 1812 this Academy was translated to the ex-convent of Augustinians of San Acacio, where it still remains; the church of the convent being used for its meetings and examinations. This building was conceded to the Academy by Ferdinand VII., who increased the rent assigned to 30,000 reals (3001.)
This school had the glory of possessing such illustrious men as Francisco Herrera, Velasquez, Sebastian de Llanos y Valdes, Pedro Medina y Valbuena, Martin de Atienza y Calatrava, Cornelio Eschott, Luciano Carlos de Negron, and Lorenzo de Avila.
In later times it has produced the distinguished artists Esquivel, Gutierrez de la Vega, and Becquer, who so justly have become renowned in the School of Painting. In 1836, this institution was raised to the rank of Real Academia, with all the contributions and prerogatives granted by law, enjoying a grant of 30,000 reals (3001.).
This Academy holds classes for the diffusion of the knowledge and study of the three noble arts-painting, sculpture and architecture. It possesses the original manuscript statutes of the first period of the primitive School of Painting, in which is seen the signature of Bartolomé Murillo, clear and