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distinct. In its sculpture halls are seen several celebrated works of art, among which figure the group of the Laocoon, Venus de Medicis, Apollo Belvedere, Castor and Pollux, and the Dying Gladiator.

If, in narrating and describing the different heads and sections of the educational

progress of Seville, I have more than once regretted the small limit allowed me in the columns of your valued Magazine, to give a full extension and the complete detail which the history of this subject merits, I have never felt this regret greater than to-day, when attempting to describe this school, which has done so much to further good taste, refinement, and culture, and which has rendered this city so renowned on account of the number of her sons who have become famous in it. Seville, indeed, can glory that her school was the first, if not the only one, which imparted to painting truthfulness and philosophy. Let us examine the works of this enchanting art executed before and after, and even at the commencement of the fifteenth century, and we shall see a colouring more or less vivid, a drawing more or less graceful, in which the artist endeavoured to depict a form ; but we shall not find naturalness—the imagination of the artificer, but not the rules of art for translating to the canvas, or to the marble, the animation and perfection, or defect, of the object and form which he proposed to himself to pourtray or imitate. And when I say that it was reserved to the Sevillian school to win this laurel, it must not be supposed that, in doing so, I confine myself to Spain ; the whole artistic world is a debtor to the Spanish school for having taught how to observe and study nature with the object of copying her and of imitating her colouring. Juan Sanchez de Castro was the originator of this school, and among his followers was numbered the famous Gonzalo Diaz; to this school also was due the improvement we perceive in the works of Bartolomé de Mesa and Alejo Fernandez; these were followed by Diego de la Barreda and his disciple Luis de Vargas, who flourished in the sixteenth century, as well as Antonio Arfian, Juan de las Roolas, Francisco Zurbaran, Luis Fernandez, Andres Ruiz Sarabia, Francisco Gonzalez the Carthusian, Francisco de Herrera the Elder, his brother Bartolomé, Francisco Pacheco, the master of the celebrated Don Diego Velasquez, Augustin del Castillo, and his brother Juan, sometime master of the immortal Bartolomé Esteban Murillo.

The admirable progress of the Sevillian school, due solely to the assiduous labours and talent of these geniuses, did not merit during its lengthened career the smallest protection or assistance from Government; the expenses which indispensably occurred were met by a voluntary contribution, as we are told by Señor Cean Bermudez, who transcribed the first list of subscribers in 1660, who bound themselves to pay 6 reals (141d.) per month. This list is headed by F. Herrera, B. Murillo, and a number of other artists, the whole monthly subscription amounting to 138 reals (about 11. 78. 6d.), which sum in our days would barely suffice to defray the expense of keeping the place clean. The Sevillian artists did not need any further means, or protection, or patronage, to attract to their school such celebrated foreign artists as F. Frutel, Pedro de Campana, M. Perez Dalecio, and others, whose works executed in Seville shine

among those of the students of this Academy-Hernando Sturucio, Pedro de Villegas Marmolejo, Luis de Morales the divine, Basco Pereira, and many others.

In the seventeenth century flourished many more, but none outshone Murillo. The death of this famous artist seemed to be the sign of the gradual decadence of the Sevillian school, as one by one death removed the disciples of Murillo, Osorio, Gutierrez, Juan Garzon, Escobar, Joya, Pineda, Jose Lopez, Sarabia, Esteban Marquez the knight, Nuñez de Villávicencio, and Esteban Gomez, known as the Mulatto.

And on a par with painting also flourished sculpture and architecture in the works of Alonso Martinez, Pedro Garcia, Juan Norman, and Alonso Rodriguez in the fifteenth century, and those of Lopez Martin, Lorenzo del Vao, Bartolomé Morel, Luis de Vega, Torregiano, and many other sculptors, whose works, executed in the sixteenth century, are perfect models, and the greater number absolutely inimitable.

Architecture flourished also in those days in such geniuses as Diego Riaño, Minjares, Florentin and many more, too numerous to name here, as well as the renowned Juan de Herrera, names which have become immortalised, for they will subsist long after the sumptuous buildings erected in Seville shall have crumbled away. In 1600 still existed such sculptors as Parrilla, Bernardo Guijon, the celebrated Juan Martinez Montañez, Pedro Roldan and his daughter Luisa, and others ; also many architects and artists who became no less celebrated; but in the seventeenth century, that is to say, at the same period as painting began to descend in the scale of excellence, so also did architecture become corrupted with the bad taste evinced in the style introduced by Geronimo Barbas.

Fortunately the school has been re-established, and the Academia of Noble Arts of Santa Isabel, which I mentioned above, organised, and in our days we see painting regenerated by Arangos Gutierrez, Bejarano, Esquivel, Becquer; sculpture by the Astorgas, father and son, worthy competitors of Roldan; and there is no lack of living architects of sufficient genius for erecting buildings of as great artistic merit as any which are seen in our city.

Seville, the mistress of so many artistic glories, did not possess a building bearing the title of Museum, while each and every one of her convents exhibited works of art in greater profusion than in her cathedral—a wealth of rare objects which suffered a notable detriment during the French invasion at the commencement of the present century, when, under its shadow, a large number of rare gems passed into the possession of private individuals.

The suppression of convents and monasteries later on caused the disappearance, through want of precaution and foresight, of many objects of art which now adorn foreign galleries and museums.

In my next letter I shall give you some account of the Academia of Sciences, and other literary and scientific institutions.

CURRENT LITERATURE.

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Judas Maccabous and the Jewish own high priests as pashas. Then War of Independence. By Claude comes the period of Alexander the Reignier Conder, R.E. London: Great, and Macedonian rule begins, Marcus Ward and Co. 1870. Alexander enlisting a large Jewish

How great an advantage it is contingent for colonisation of the for any one about to write the his.

city which yet bears his name in tory of a nation to have studied Egypt. At his death Palestine the country itself in which that passed over to the ruling family history was transacted may be of the Seleucidæ, Egypt going to gathered from the work before us. the Ptolemies, the first of whom The motto on the title-page of this carried off a further number of Techerché little volume consists of Jews to Egypt, as prisoners, not the old question, “ Can these bones as volunteers, like those who populive?” Certainly, Lieutenant Con- lated one quarter of Alexandria. der has enabled the question to be The ancient Hebrew tongue was answered in the affirmative. It is by this time dead, the vernacular a brief but a pregnant period that being a variety of Chaldee, into saw the rise and fall of the Has- which the interpreters were wont monean dynasty; the historian has to render the Scripture in the not only got into a small compass synagogue.

For the Egyptian and presented with much clearness

Jews it was

more convenient to the important facts of the epoch, have a translation of the whole but he has drawn in a considerable made into Greek, and in 277 B.C. amount of subsidiary matter, which seventy elders were allowed by the is interesting in itself, as well as authorities at Jerusalem to pronecessary for the proper under- ceed to Egypt to execute the standing of the forces at work in translation. the age in question, and subme- Another quiet century passes, quently. The sketch forms a most which ends with the death of instructive and complete historic Antiochus the Great, and the monograph, and possesses, more- bequest of Palestine to the Egypover, the advantage - somewhat

tian King as his wife's dowry. The rare when the subject is connected younger son of Antiochus sets with Judea-of being treated with aside this arrangement, and assumes as little a bias as if it were a history control over Jerusalem, which is no of Iceland or Japan.

longer a united and patriotic First is given, by way of intro- capital, but is divided between the duction, a brief abstract of Jewish factions of rival candidates for the history from the time of Ezra. high priesthood. A revolution The little nation was then estab- affords Antiochus Epiphanes a lished in its country, city, and pretext foradvancing on Jerusalem, temple, and remained a century in and possessing himself of the peace under Persian rule, with its wealth of the Temple. A massacre

a

and sack ensue; Epiphanes pro- or anointed leaders—priest and war fanes the Temple and rouses up chief-there is much incidental inthe latent patriotism and zeal formation, which makes the volume which had been undergoing a before us of a value which the gradual softening process under title by itself would scarcely lead the influence of Hellenism. Of the reader to expect. this national revival Judas becomes the hero. An aged priest, named Sketches and Studies in Italy. Mattathias, the great-grandson of By J. A. Symonds. Smith, Elder, Hasmon (1 Chron. xxiv. 7), who and Co. 1879. had retired from Jerusalem to his It is difficult in a short space to village of Modin, when a commis- do justice to a series of more or sioner came to persuade the people to

less disconnected essays.

The consacrifice to the heathen deities, ran necting link in Mr. Symonds's upon him and slew him upon the articles is, that they all treat of altar. This man had five tall sons, Italian themes; but they cover who now formed the nucleus of various historical epochs, and a national party, and of whom various portions of the country. Judas, by reason of his soldierly Mr. Symonds is at his best when capacity, first takes the lead. The he is critical, at his worst when he next seven years have a remarkable is descriptive; because, though he military interest, to which Lieut. has an exquisitely keen feeling for Conder has done justice, for they scenery, be carries to excess the contain the battles between small florid style of writing that has for compact bodies of Jews, led by a some time past been popular with native and impetuous leader, and our æsthetic school, and which is large hosts comparatively ignorant as vicious as it is unsuited to the of the ground. After many suc- genius of our language. If Mr. cessful battles, each of which in- Symonds remembered the rules laid creased his power and following, down by Lessing in the “Laokoon,” Judas suffered a bitter defeat and he would not thus allow his pen to death. He had, however, previously infringe upon the boundaries of the concluded an alliance with Rome, sister art of painting. This attempt under the protection of whose huge at word-painting spoils what would ægis little Judea, after further otherwise be charming accounts of battles with the Hellenists, and a Paestum, Amalfi, Capri, Como, &c. great power of craft exhibited by Redundance of epithets, duplicaJonathan, the brother who suc- tions of meaning, do not conduce ceeded Judas, obtained comparative to ease and perspicuity. We quote freedom and prosperity for a term a sentence selected at random :

This prosperity, how- “The whole (aspect of Amalfi) ever, when the primitive Chasidim is white and wonderful: no similes had developed into the stiff-necked suggest an analogue for the lustre, Pharisees, and the Hasmonean solid and transparent, of Amalfi, princes had become rich and Sad- nestling in moonlight between the ducean, broke up through civil grey-blue sea and lucid hills." dissensions; and the end was the

This sentence is a fair specimen destruction of the Temple and of of Mr. Symonds's fine writing. How national independence beneath the about its grammatical accuracy ? iron hand of Rome.

Can a simile suggest an analogue ? Upon the Essenes, the Hellenists, How can a lustre be solid and the Mizraimites, the Sadducees, transparent ? How can hills be the Zealots, the various Messiahs, lucid ? A little more reticence and

of years.

a

sobriety would eliminate faults that rights of a fellow-creature-imposes seriously impair the excellence of mutual limitations and shuts out, all Mr. Symonds's writings.

by mutual rights, at once on the A critical study on Lucretius is one hand barbarous torture, and on marked by a just appreciation of the other, extremes of, e.g., antithe poet's powers and of his rela- vivisection doctrines. tion to modern science. Mr. Sy- This is a book original in chamonds points out how in Lucretius racter, written in an original man. the Roman genius found its lite- ner, and with an original style of rary interpreter, and proves from

its own.

“ The author,” as he yet the “ De Rerum Natura” how calls himself—though, to be conPositivism and Realism were quali sistent, it should have been the ties of Roman as distinguished maker-in his “ Forewords,” comfrom Greek culture. An elaborate

An elaborate monly called the preface, does essay upon “ Antinous," full of “ not claim to have found a new archæological details and ingenious truth ; Lawrence, Bentham, Helps, surmises, fails in every respect to have each laid down the principle solve the enigma concerning the that feeling”-i.e., the power of hapless favourite of Hadrian. Our feeling pleasure and pain—“ gives author is happier in pointing out rights; and this principle was clear the debt of English to Italian lite- enough to anyone who would look rature, and his translations of some straight at it, and into it.” Herbert of the popular Italian poetry of the Spencer, by his definition of hapRenaissance and of the “ Orfeo" of piness, has done much to form Poliziano are admirable in their the theory of the book, and is fidelity and musical skill.

The so acknowledged ; i.e., the theory whole book is pervaded with a true of right and wrong as to animal. love of and appreciation for rights, which we therefore need Southern scenery, colour, and

not say is not that of “might is beauty, while the rare scholarship right.” and wide reading of its author

But the ethical claim of the essay make it only too rich in suggestive is to have started from a stiil illustrations.

earlier principle in morals than

any evoked by Mr. Spencer, or The Rights of an Animal; a New either of the writers named—the Essay in Ethics. By Edward Byron first principle ; and to have Nicholson, M.A., late Scholar of strengthened that first principle by Trinity College, Oxford. C. Kegan an argument from moral evolution : Paul and Co. 1879.

see Forewords, p. ix. This prinPerhaps the rights of a fellow- ciple, too, is enunciated as the creature would have been, as a title something we English call conto this book, more explanatory of science; what it bids us do we call its purpose. Men, of course, are right, what it forbids is wrong.” animals; but that word is so often Now,

Now, without space to go fully into used as if it meant another order the matter, we are very much afraid of beings, and did not include men, conscience is too elastic as a printhat in a question of "rights" it ciple, or at least as a guide, for the may lead to confusion. Besides purpose for which it is evoked; an that, a Creator is everywhere in educated conscience, and equally this book not merely taken as a a conscience uneducated, may be fact, which nowadays it is not found to “bid what most, we always, but the ethical principle trust, still “call wrong," and to which underlies the whole the “forbid” what we hope most will

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