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and sack ensue; Epiphanes pro- or anointed leaders-priest and war fanes the Temple and rouses up chief-there is much incidental in. the latent patriotism and zeal formation, which makes the volume which had been undergoing a before us of a value which the gradual softening process under title by itself would scarcely lead the influence of Hellenism. Of the reader to expect. this national revival Judas becomes the hero. An aged priest, named Sketches and Studies in Italy. Mattathias, the great-grandson of By J. A. Symonds. Smith, Elder, Hasmon (1 Chron. xxiv. 7), who and Co. 1879. had retired from Jerusalem to his It is difficult in a short space to village of Modin, when a commis- do justice to a series of more or sioner came to persuade the people to less disconnected essays. The consacrifice to the heathen deities, ran necting link in Mr. Symonds's upon him and slew him upon the articles is, that they all treat of altar. This man had five tall sons, Italian themes; but they cover who now formed the nucleus of various historical epochs, and a national party, and of whom various portions of the country. Judas, by reason of his soldierly Mr. Symonds is at his best when capacity, first takes the lead. The he is critical, at his worst when he next seven years have a remarkable is descriptive; because, though he military interest, to which Lieut. has an exquisitely keen feeling for Conder has done justice, for they scenery, he carries to excess the contain the battles between small florid style of writing that has for compact bodies of Jews, led by a some time past been popular with native and impetuous leader, and our æsthetic school, and which is large hosts comparatively ignorant as vicious as it is unsuited to the of the ground. After many suc- genius of our language. If Mr. cessful battles, each of which in. Symonds remembered the rules laid creased his power and following, down by Lessing in the “Laokoon,” Judas suffered a bitter defeat and he would not thus allow his pen to death. He had, however, previously infringe upon the boundaries of the concluded an alliance with Rome, sister art of painting. This attempt under the protection of whose huge at word-painting spoils what would ægis little Judea, after further otherwise be charming accounts of battles with the Hellenists, and a Paestum, Amalfi, Capri, Como, &c. great power of craft exhibited by Redundance of epithets, duplicaJonathan, the brother who suc- tions of meaning, do not conduce ceeded Judas, obtained comparative to ease and perspicuity. We quote freedom and prosperity for a term a sentence selected at random: of years. Tħis prosperity, how. “The whole (aspect of Amalfi) ever, when the primitive Chasidim is white and wonderful: no similes had developed into the stiff-necked suggest an analogue for the lustre, Pharisees, and the Hasmonean solid and transparent, of Amalfi, princes had become rich and Sad nestling in moonlight between the ducean, broke up through civil grey-blue sea and lucid hills.” dissensions; and the end was the This sentence is a fair specimen destruction of the Temple and of of Mr. Symonds's fine writing. How national independence beneath the about its grammatical accuracy ? iron hand of Rome.
Can a simile suggest an analogue ? Upon the Essenes, the Hellenists, How can a lustre be solid and the Mizraimites, the Sadducees, transparent? How can hills be the Zealots, the various Messiahs, lucid ? A little more reticence and sobriety would eliminate faults that rights of a fellow-creature-imposes seriously impair the excellence of mutual limitations and shuts out, all Mr. Symonds's writings. by mutual rights, at once on the
A critical study on Lucretius is one hand barbarous torture, and on marked by a just appreciation of the other, extremes of, e.g., antithe poet's powers and of his rela- vivisection doctrines. tion to modern science. Mr. Sy. This is a book original in chamonds points out how in Lucretius racter, written in an original man. the Roman genius found its lite ner, and with an original style of rary interpreter, and proves from its own. “The author,” as he yet the “ De Rerum Natura" how calls himself—though, to be conPositivism and Realism were quali sistent, it should have been the ties of Roman as distinguished maker-in his “ Forewords," com. from Greek culture. An elaborate monly called the preface, does essay upon “ Antinous," full of “not claim to have found a new archæological details and ingenious truth ; Lawrence, Bentham, Helps, surmises, fails in every respect to have each laid down the principle solve the enigma concerning the that feeling”-i.e., the power of hapless favourite of Hadrian. Our feeling pleasure and pain—“ gives author is happier in pointing out rights; and this principle was clear the debt of English to Italian lite enough to anyone who would look rature, and his translations of some straight at it, and into it.” Herbert of the popular Italian poetry of the Spencer, by his definition of hapRenaissance and of the “ Orfeo" of piness, has done much to form Poliziano are admirable in their the theory of the book, and is fidelity and musical skill. The so acknowledged ; i.e., the theory whole book is pervaded with a true of right and wrong as to animal. love of and appreciation for rights, which we therefore need Southern scenery, colour, and not say is not that of “might is beauty, while the rare scholarship right." and wide reading of its author But the ethical claim of the essay make it only too rich in suggestive is to have started from a still illustrations.
earlier principle in morals than
any evoked by Mr. Spencer, or The Rights of an Animal; a New either of the writers named—the Essay in Ethics. By Edward Byron first principle ; and to have Nicholson, M.A., late Scholar of strengthened that first principle by Trinity College, Oxford. C. Kegan an argument from moral evolution : Paul and Co. 1879.
see Forewords, p. ix. This prinPerhaps the rights of a fellow. ciple, too, is enunciated as the creature would have been, as a title “something we English call con. to this book, more explanatory of science; what it bids us do we call its purpose. Men, of course, are right, what it forbids is wrong." animals; but that word is so often Now, without space to go fully into used as if it meant another order the matter, we are very much afraid of beings, and did not include men, conscience is too elastic as a prin. that in a question of “rights” it ciple, or at least as a guide, for the may lead to confusion. Besides purpose for which it is evoked ; an that, a Creator is everywhere in educated conscience, and equally this book not merely taken as a a conscience uneducated, may be fact, which nowadays it is not found to “bid " what most, we always, but the ethical principle trust, still “call wrong," and to which underlies the whole-the “forbid " what we hope most will always “call right.” Take, e.g., on the window-pane—all have the case of a highly conscientious something said upon our dealings Thug, with a conscience educated with them that will commend itself in the principles of Thuggism; and to most readers, and interest and then contrast with that a con. instruct them, and that not with. scientious Brahmin. And as of out amusement added as well. the individual so of the national The writer perhaps best sums conscience, and what is called the up the purpose of his book in this moral sense of mankind.
sentence, p. 18:“For those who But to pass on; the scope and believe in a wise Maker of men and bearing of the book, apart from its animals, and who wish to help in ethical value, is a vindication of fulfilling his end, the same reasons the rights of our fellow-creatures which would lead them to include of what is called the lower order of in that end the happiness of men, animals. Very racy, very piquant, must lead them to include in it the and very telling is the line of argu happiness of all his other creatures." ment taken ; it is by far the best This is the keynote of the essay. book for “ prevention of cruelty to Mr. Nicholson has something to animals” we know; of course of a say as to his style. “To save any much higher order than the one the trouble of picking my style Society's well-meant tracts; placing to pieces, I have no style worth the subject on a broader, firmer, speaking about. In schoolboy days wider basis, illustrating it in a far I gathered from books and newsmore effective and real way, and papers two main rules to follow in very discreetly limiting it by composition : ' first, always to other rights, as remote from the choose a romance word before an sickly sentimentalist as from the English word, and a Latin or Greek brutal advocates for torture. word before either; secondly, to Vivisection, for instance, a subject shun tautology." This rule, only now so strongly debated, is held reversed, is the present aim of the (p. 61) to have its “ warrant in the writer, and he has very effectively case of harmful animals, and observed it. We think the result, animals which are man's rivals for as to style, is a good idiomatic food," and so on.
English, with much freedom of We by no means wish it to be expression. Even the Neosupposed that this book deals Cartesian view, the animal soul and solely with high and abstract the animal reason, and other theories or “first principles ”. scientific matters, are treated of alone; on the contrary, it is emi. without infringing the writer's rule, nently practical, and quite level or importing into the discussion with everyday life. The horse, for either Latin or Greek words. instance, which, in the words of Altogether, the book is a pleasant John Lawrence, is at one in and useful contribution to its substant whipped for holding too close ject. Amongst other curious to the driver, at the next for bear things coming fresh to ourselves is ing too much off; now for going the remembering, p. 14, that Lord too fast, then for going too slow; Redesdale, whom our readers have by-and-by for stopping, afterwards perhaps known as an amateur because he did not stop, comes in theologian, and a pamphleteer on for some most sensible remarks. various recondite theological subSo, too, the discipline of dogs, the jects, stood up in the House of mode of necessary slaughter, field Lords, in 1849, to defend cocksports, sports of schoolboys, the fly fighting“ when fairly and properly conducted”—of course his Lord. used by the natives. The first, the ship's notions of fairness and pro- hand assegai, has a long, broad priety being then, as now, some blade, and is used when fighting what peculiar in their application. hand to hand. The second, which
the natives use for hurling, has a A Hunting Expedition to the longer handle, and the blade is Transvaal. By D. Fernandes Das smaller and sharper. The Vatuas Neves; translated by Mariana and the Landinas can, at a distance Monteiro. London: G. Bell and of thirty paces, pierce a man Sons. 1879.
through with one of their hurling The Transvaal is at this time of assegais." much interest to Englishmen. It This is from the description of a is not alone for the hunting," or singular method of hunting buffafor the dash of the “ expedition,” loes, practised by a celebrated that we are very glad of this trans- native hunter, who is also a marlated book; it has much to recom vellous runner. It reads almost mend it in that respect; and quite as an instructive comment on recent as much in other, perhaps wider,
events. matters. Senhor Neves had for The original work was published many years unusual opportunities last year in Lisbon. Our readers of studying the various tribes and may recall Mr. Oswald Crawfurd's races of the country he hunted review of it in the Academy at over; this of itself just now is an the time. The translator is, we important matter. The ways and believe, sister of the African trahabits, the customs and methods, veller, whose “Angola and River of these tribes, with whom we are Congo ” we all know, and she has more and more coming in contact, the advantage of being well acis a subject on which Englishmen quainted with English, as well as should have at least some general her mother togue. A good translaideas, and not less some knowledge tion indeed always needs a certain as to adapting or framing their mastery over the language into own customs and methods in deal. which the translation is made; ing with them. How to treat them only less-if indeed at all less is a rising question. If kindness than the knowledge of the language is thrown away, harshness may be from which it is taken. Malle. kindness, extermination may be the Monteiro is fortunate in possessing solution of present difficulties ; but both. We have not detected many it ought not to be so, and should, faults, unless indeed the not suffiat least, be that only as the last ciently interchanging the labials resource. We have, however, in rendering into English from the wandered from the more direct Portuguese, where, as is well purpose of our notice. Still, before known, the idiom of pronunciation returning to it, we must transcribe and of spelling vary. As an one passage to which late events example of what we mean, the give particular significance, and word “ Vatuas” in our above quowhich at the same time affords a tation would have been properly sample of the book, and of the Batuas for English eyes as well as useful form its adventurous ex English ears, and there would then ploits sometimes take. It is à propos have been no danger of Englishto a very stirring, well-told nar. men not recognising the tribe with rative, for which we send our whom they have lately had the proreaders to the book itself, p. 257: bability of only too much acquaint"There are two kinds of assegais ance.
We wish our columns allowed us fully counted up; the advantageous to give our readers the story of an prospects are not exaggerated ; the elephant hunter, twice caught by difficulties are not diminished ; the elephants, and carried in the air drawbacks are not withheld. It is for a great length of time. On the practical : choosing stock, finance, first occasion the animal laid him stud-flocks, are all treated of. In down very carefully. On the one thing it strikes us as of use in second, when passing a large tree, the old country, if only our old he placed him on the top of it. On farmers could be persuaded to profit neither did he receive the least in- by it; we mean the cleanness of jury. We send those who enjoy the wool- not the mere washing, hairbreadth escapes and the like which is another matter; but the exciting marvels of the chase to cleanness by prevention, as to which the twelfth chapter for this par- our own herdsmen are so strangely ticular story, and to the whole book deficient in care. When we read passim, with full commendation of (p. 50) that, “ if there be a road to it for this its speciality; and also, cross, a careful man will go a mile as we have said, even more for the round to avoid it; if a gateway higher matters which it so compe- becomes dusty, it is shut up and a tently describes, and as to which it fresh opening made in the fence," gives materials for further thought we can but contrast with this the and for forming opinions.
state of things as we have seen it
at a sheep-shearing at home. In Australian Grazier's Guide, 1879. many respects the Australian Silver, London; Robertson, Sydney, grazier rejoices not only in more Melbourne, and Adelaide.
careful “hands,” but also in higher We conclude that the late Kil. appliances than we can boast of. burn Exhibition will have suffi. “It pays,” we are told, “ to have ciently aroused general interest in a steam engine at the wash pens, the general subject, to give a special acres of battens, scores of men, hot interest to this special branch of it. and cold water, covered pens.” To an intending emigrant, with a Truly Australia is a big country, purpose of cattle farming, whether with large ideas, as well as a great “stock," as it is called, or sheep, future before it-which is the moral which is the other staple of Austra we draw from so small a book as lian farms, this small book is this “Grazier's Guide," and so exactly what it is called—a guide. small a matter in it as its sheepThe experiences of colonial life, as washing. 8 quatters and otherwise, are care