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contained something of a recalling the other, of the mortal body, and admonitory nature, which with all its latent contrary powers, extended even so far as to irrational to its pacificator, the mind. Friend. animals." Legends are told of ship, using the word in its widest Pythagoras gently stroking a most sense, as implying relations even dangerous bear, and conjuring it to between things inanimate; this touch living beings no more; to an might have been his motto. ox he is said to have given counsel The rules of the community in whisper, counsel which was fol. administered by Pythagoras must lowed ; and an eagle he is said to have been very rigid; or rather the have allured from the sky to his atmosphere which he breathed was hand, afterwards letting it go. We so rare and pure that a man failing are reminded in these legends to live up to the high ideal preof the traditions attaching to sented to him by the master would Orpheus.

almost of necessity find himself Pythagoras was “the cause to outside the societary life. And, so his disciples of the most appro- far as may be judged by the priate converse with divine beings, traditions remaining, there was whether while awake or asleep; no arbitrary enforcement of mema thing which never takes place in bership, but the association was a soul disturbed by anger, or pain, wholly voluntary. or pleasure, or by any other base Mathematics was made one of desire, or defiled by ignorance, the early studies in the Pythagowhich is more unholy and noxious rean school, as being the first step than all these. By all these in- towards wisdom. For a science ventions, therefore, he divinely which deals with that which lies in healed and purified the soul, the middle region between things resuscitated and saved its divine appreciable to

appreciable to the senses and part, and conducted to the in- spiritual and divine facts, enlarges telligible its divine eye, which, as the mind and renders it the more Plato says, is better worth saving elastic for the reception of superthan ten thousand corporeal eyes; sensual ideas. In other words, that for by looking through this alone, which has to do with abstract and when it is strengthened and clari- intangible properties, is a fit prefied by appropriate aids, the truth paration for the study of what is pertaining to all things is per- spiritual. What the students ceived."

learned, they were trained to learn The main original feature in thoroughly, and the strength and Pythagoras as a teacher seems to accuracy of the memory were be his high consciousness of har. maintained by constant exercise. mony, whether in actual existence, The student before rising from his or as a treasure to be earnestly bed was led to review the actions sought for. This harmony he saw, and studies of the preceding day in the interdependency of the parts in the minutest detail. This was of the universe, in the amity done methodically and in the right between divine beings and men, order; and one day's events rebetween one doctrine and another, sumed, the Pythagorean proceeded between the soul and the body, to recal to himself the transactions the rational and irrational part; of the day before that. he desired to see the same har. The late Dr. Mozley asserted mony made more sure in the

that the simple apprehension of a relations of man to man, of hus- spiritual world is by itself no preband to wife, of brothers one to servative whatever against moral obliquities. This may be true, will be besought to contribute of its though the enlargement of the experience. vista of life due to such an appre

In the order founded by Pythahension should not be without an goras, there were the listeners who effect at once steadying and elevat- passed on into classes for matheing. Even Tyndall urges that matics and physics. Among more

what is really wanted is the lift- advanced students we find the ing power of an ideal element in division into exoterics and esoterics. human life.” “What's the best There were members given to conthing in the world ? Something

Something templation, to science, to politics. out of it, I think," says Eliza- And outside these divisions there beth Barrett Browning If in were others founded on the relathis best thing be found the tions of the disciples to the master. ideal, it is of little moment on There were personal friends, direct the score of marvel, but of the disciples, who were called-prohighest if it be fact. Pythagoras bably not in his lifetime-Pythapainted no vague or startling pic- gorics; the disciples of these, ture of life in Hades, but he Pythagoreans; while those who staunchly asserted that to be in. lived outside the community, but jured oneself is better than to emulated its life, formed the class murder another, for in that unseen of Pythagorists. life is judgment, and the soul there Everything of the Pythagorean finds its proper estimation and tradition betokens a volunteer hierlevel. Retributive justice he very archical order, in which by the coningeniously associated with the quest of unruly ambitions and passymbol of the right-angled triangle. sions, each found his true place. I'wo That figure may be composed with considerations suggest themselves : an infinite number of variations of that an organisation so formed its sides, but it will ever contain an must prove one of great power ; equal demonstration of power. that when it came to extend its Whatever the relative proportions influence, there would be lack of of the sides of the triangle, the homogeneity, tending to disrupsquare of the side subtending the tion, between a group of persons right angle will invariably be trained to absolute self-control and equal to the combined squares of a mass of citizens priding themthe two sides containing the right selves on the most they can acquire angle. Circumstances vary, the of freedom. law abides.

The late Lord Lytton speaks A man raised, strengthened, and thus of Pythagoras in reference to purified by earnestness and culture the external and political develophas a double duty,—to himself and ment of his Order. “He selected to others. He is bound to exercise the three hundred, who at Croton bis faculties for his own sake lest formed his Order, from the noblest they perish of inaction; he is families, and they were professedly bound by the law of his being to reared to know themselves, that so exercise them not only for himself they might be fitted to command but for others. It is an almost ne- the world. It was not long before cessary consequence of the growth this society, of which Pythagoras of a community to strength, that was the head, appears to have supit should be called upon to do planted the ancient Senate, and practical work. If it has dealt with obtained the legislative administrathose who are without its rules, in tion. In this institution Pythalove, it will have won respect, and goras stands alone; other


a calm

founder of Greek philosophy re- vials of the popular wrath to accu. sembles him.” Even Plato was mulate themselves against. The content to have his ideal Republic masses are like children, they love on paper.

their own way, and that way is not The ideal of a community of per- always the way of wisdom. The fect order, each having his place, ardour of inharmonious life, the learner at the feet of teacher, sway of popular caprice, Pythanovice gladly subordinate to sage, goras meets by a system as rigidly when carried out into the political perfect as that of the steps of his world, means an aristocracy. An disciples' initiation. His standard aristocracy, with one provision, is is too high, his ideal of life too the most perfect type of Govern- solemn and religious, too much ment conceivable. It must ever like the life of the Egyptian priests maintain the condition of its title in the temple. The higher natures by being an administration con- cannot always allow for the lusts ducted by such as are, at the time and loves and self - will of the being, the noblest souls, and the lower ; they would make those wise fittest to rule, of the whole com- who prefer to retain the prerogamunity. Such a Government pos- tive of not being wise until they sessed of absolute power would want to be. It is easy to underraise life to its highest possible per- stand how a restless, pleasure-lovfection.

ing community might baffle the But in this world, even if the benevolent schemes of maintenance of an unimpeachable philosopher, and how he should and trusted body of administrators vainly seek to remedy the difficulty could be ensured, the system will by relaxations of one kind, restricnot always work so well in practice tions of another. as in theory. We seem to need to The late Lord Lytton, a man of live by actions and reactions, rather statesmanlike mind,

comments than by the placid perfection thus: “Pythagoras committed a which wise theory would dictate. fatal error when, in his attempt to Questions difficult to

revolutionise society, he had rearise : whose choice decides who are course to aristocracies for his the aristocracy? what is to be agents.

Revolutions, especially done when corruption follows the those influenced by religion, can temptations of power? These do never be worked out but by popunot seem to have arisen to com- lar emotions. It was from this plicate the political problem on error of judgment that he enlisted which the Pythagoreans were the people against him ; for by the labouring. They came into power account of Neanthes, related by of their own inherent force; their Porphyry, and, indeed, from all discipline was not impaired by the other testimony, it is clearly eviexercise of power for its own sake. dent that to popular, not party,

But the system is too perfect to commotion his fall must be work. There are jealousies and ascribed. It is no less clear that discontent among the masses, to

after his death, while his philosowhom to be free is a more intelli- phical sect remained, his political gible ideal than to be orderly. A code crumbled away. The only democracy, if it suffer, has no one seeds sown by philosophers which to blame but itself, it can but spring up into great States, are supersede individual officials, grum- those that, whether for good or ble and go on. Under aristocratic evil, are planted in the hearts of rule there is a ready target for the


the many.





The good influence of the Py- their relations from this fellowship, thagorean school must have been as if they were strangers. Every

From great luxury citizen, it was advanced, ought to and licentiousness, the community be eligible for the magistracy, and was in great part converted to the rulers were bound to render sobriety and order. The original an account of their conduct to constitution of the city appears to committee elected by lot from have been aristocratic; the Pytha- the multitude. An absolute in. goreans held in especial request version this of the perfect ideal of existirg laws, but probably they hierarchical rule. consolidated, and made

Kylon, who had been found untheoretically perfect the aristo- fitted to go through with the cratic system.

Pythagorean training, on account Jealousies arose; party spirit of his violent, undisciplined developed, and with that the calm character, delivered long harangues rule of wisdom, such as we may against the society. Another inimagine to hold good amongst dividual followed suit with a garbled angels, or perfectly trained Pytha- and calumnious version of certain goreans, must at once be impaired. of the maxims of the order. In On the one side was the strong fact, it was discovered their whole tumultuous agitation and excite- system of pretended philosophy ment of a popular movement; on was a mere plot and conspiracy the other the calm, beneficent, im- against popular rights ! passive philosophers, impressed These articles of impeachment, with the religious conception of industriously circulated, produced the moral utility of obedience ! their natural. effect. The people To Pythagoras the licence of a for whom the right to magistracy mob must have meant servitude to was claimed, took the law into their passion.

own hands, set on fire a temple Excuses were not long wanting where a number of Pythagoreans among those who sought to throw were assembled, or, according to off the strict, but kindly Pytha- another account, the house of Milo, gorean yoke. Trifles or monstrosi- and all but two of those within ties of well-marked colour, these were burned or massacred. It is please savages and mobs. It was not known whether Pythagoras urged that the members of the himself was among the number order had a separate life from that present; and whether he went into of the other citizens ; that they gave sorrowful exile or was killed is a their right hand to those of their matter of doubt. A simultaneous own sect alone (it was probably wave of democracy was advancing the secret grip by which members in Greece herself, and Pythagorecognised one another) ; that they rism, as a political rather than shared their possessions with each a philosophical institution, was other in common, but excluded crushed for ever.



August, 1879. In the great national movement referred to in my last letter, the citizens of Lisbon took a prominent part, and it is presumed that the students of the University, following the standard of Mestre d'Aviz, which was one of liberty and independence, combined with the inhabitants of the city to secure a signal triumph ; this presumption is supported by the fact that the King, D. João I., invariably accorded to the University hisfavour and protection from the very commencement of his reign.

Whilst yet governing under the simple title of Defender of the Kingdom, he confirmed, in October, 1384, all the ancient privileges of the University, promising that it should remain radically established in the city of Lisbon. He gave ample powers to the doctors, licentiates, and bachelors to advocate any cause without further licence; he sanctioned a resolution which the University had adopted prohibiting the discipline of any faculty to be taught outside their schools, and that no one should be empowered to teach unless examined and approved of by some professor or doctor in the faculty he wished to teach. Numerous indeed are the provisions decreed by the King, D. João I., in favour of the University, all tending to the advancement of instruction, and the improvement of its financial condition in order to lighten the heavy burthen borne by masters and students, which the extraordinary state of the kingdom at that period laid upon every citizen.

Meanwhile the revenues of the University no longer sufficed to defray the necessary expenditure of the schools and the maintenance of their professors. It became necessary to create new resources. The administrative body of the University therefore resolved to exact from the students a contribution in proportion to their individual means; the more wealthy among them to pay the professors £20, those less wealthy to contribute £10, and the poorest ones £5.

When this resolution was laid before the King for his sanction, he deemed these sums inadequate, and he ordered, by a letter dated 6th February, 1392, that this contribution be doubled. He also on his part helped to increase the rents of the University by annexing to it other churches, for which he solicited and obtained the authorisation of the Holy See.

It is not to be wondered at if at this epoch the financial state of the University should be so little prosperous. Its own revenues, from the very nature of their provision, must needs be diminished in consequence of the war which was maintained against Castille to secure our independence ; while, on the other hand, the expenses of the University necessarily increased with the augmentation of the teaching body which the progressive development of science entailed.

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