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We cannot state with any degree of certainty the exact period when this increase in the number of professors took place in our University; but it is certain that it was after the last transfer of the schools from Coimbra to Lisbon during the reign of D. Fernando. We find, on examining royal letters of the 25th of October, 1400, issued for the reduction of certain imposts, that at that date there already existed three professors in the faculty of laws, three of canons, four of grammar, two of logic, one of that of medicine, and one of theology, and this is the first time that we find mentioned in the plan of studies of the University a professor of theology.
From this simple enumeration we can judge how greatly the studies in the University had increased during the reign of João I., if we compare them with what they were during the reigns of the former kings, when we could discover only four professors, scarcely one for each faculty. We also find a nomination by the King of a director of studies in some royal letters of the 26th of January, 1415, and the 23rd of August, 1418, which still exist in the green book of the University; and we also learn by them that in 1418 this office was conferred upon Dr. Gil Martins, who had succeeded the celebrated jurisconsult, and chancellor of the King, João das Regras, he who took such a notable part in the glorious national revolution which conferred the crown upon the Mestre d'Aviz in the Cortes of Coimbra.
Dr. João das Regras, who had been a student of the University of Bologna, where he had pursued the study of jurisprudence, must needs have brought to the Portuguese University great improvements, particularly in the faculty in which it was pre-eminent. It appears that D. João I. entrusted to him the translation into the vernacular of the Codices of Justinian, with the expositions of Accursio and Bartholo.
Another great auxiliary, even more powerful and efficacious than Don João das Regras, because to a vast knowledge and superior intelligence he united great resources and the means of action, came in that same reign to infuse a new and brilliant life into the University. This auxiliary was the Infante D. Henrique, one of the illustrious sons of the King, and of his virtuous queen D. Philippa de Lancastre, who gave to Portugal the most glorious generation of princes.
The wise Infante D. Henrique, the immortal pioneer of the wondrous maritime discoveries of that epoch, which opened the oceans to great navigators, was the first protector elected by the University, and, always true to his device—Talent de bien faire—influenced in a signal manner, by his official intervention and personal direction, the rapid development of the studies.
This is not the proper place to speak of the celebrated Nautical and Cosmographical School of Sagres, where the illustrious Duke of Vizeu prepared and arranged the prodigious maritime scheme which opened so vast a field for human industry, and for giving activity to science and commerce, the civilisation of the world, and international polity-it suffices to say that the labours of that Academy, spreading far and wide the mathematical, astronomical, and geographical knowledge of the ancients, the Arabs, and of the Jews, who had during the darkness of the middle ages preserved the love of these sciences in the Iberic peninsula, necessarily brought a strong influence in favour of the entrance of the study of these sciences into the range of university studies. It is enough for our purpose to cite a letter of the Infante,
bearing the date of the 12th of October, 1431, in which we see that he endowed the University with some property, with the object that all the sciences and liberal arts, which included grammar, rhetoric, arithmetic, music, geometry, and astrology, should be read there. The Infante, like the practical and experienced man that he was, also apportioned the halls wherein the different faculties and arts should hold their sessions, ordering appropriate emblems to be placed in each ; that of Theology to bear the emblem of the Trinity ; in the case of Medicine, the statue of Galen to be erected; in that of Laws, the figure of an emperor; while in the hall of Decrees, a pope, and in that of Philosophy, the image of Aristotle were to be set up.
But the liberality of the first protector of our University was not limited to the simple endowment of buildings to which I have referred, for we know that from the rents he derived from the island of Madeira, in his quality as the Grand Maître of the Order of Christ, he stipulated for salaries to be paid to the professor of divinity in the faculty of theology.
It is impossible to follow in this brief résumé all the provisions adopted for the advancement and improvement of the University during the reign of D. João I. and under the protectorate of the Infante D. Henrique, a protectorate which was continued during the reign and regency of his two brothers, D. Duarte and D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, and part of the reign of his nephew D. Affonso V. I shall simply speak of the more interesting ones, and such as are conducive to the end I have proposed to follow. These will suffice to demonstrate clearly that our University had entered into an epoch of a more decided and favourable evolution, following the great literary and scientific movement which announced the setting of the Middle Ages, and heralded the bright dawning of the new Aurora of a modern epoch.
The formation or reformation of statutes is generally held to be a notable event in the history of universities. The year 1431 was signalised in regard to our University by the promulgation of what must be considered its first statutes. These statutes were formed upon the basis of the authorisation granted by the organic letter of 1309, and were solemnly affirmed by the see of Lisbon on the 16th of July.
However incomplete these statutes may have been, yet they reveal a certain order in the academic discipline which has been preserved down to our days in all universities whose foundation dates from the Middle Ages. The old abuse of extra-scholastic tuition by unauthorised persons, which had been prohibited by D. Pedro I., still continued to take place, and needed a fresh repression ; at the same time tbat in the classes extraordinary lectures by bachelors or simple students duly approved were allowed, or by doctors of the faculties, as is at the present day the case in nearly all the universities of Germany.
Few and irregular were the public examinations which were held for obtaining degrees, and on this point the new statutes introduced a more definite order, as I shall show further on. Another point was also taken into consideration and regulated on this occasion; this was the dress to be worn by professors and students. The new statutes regulated the academic terms and the form to be followed in the examinations for taking degrees. Students from foreign universities could also be admitted to take degrees after following the course of studies laid down. The fees and other privileges, as well as the ceremonial to be followed, which differ but little from that of our times, were also assigned. Many other provisions were also made in these statutes of 1431 which would be tedious to state in all their extension in these short letters.
D. João I. died on the 14th August, 1433, and he was succeeded on the throne by his son D. Duarte. a most enlightened prince like all his brothers, and moreover gifted with the necessary qualities for governing, but unhappily he was favoured neither by time nor fortune. His reign was short, for he died in 1438, and was succeeded by his brother the Infante D. Pedro, Duke of Coimbra, as regent during the minority of D. Affonso V.
Our University continued under the protectorate of the Infante D. Henrique, and notwithstanding the agitated state of the country, and the civil war raging during this epoch, all things appertaining to the University were progressing, and the independence of the school maintained. The intervention of Government in the University was reduced within small limits. The monarchs simply preserved to the institution their ancient privileges, or conceded new ones, favouring the increase of its rents, and nominating the conservators, who at first had only the charge given them of watching that these privileges should be preserved, and of informing the King of all occurrences which influenced the good government of the University, but later on became its private and secular judges. The whole internal government of the University, the formation of statutes, the nomination of professors, the election of rectors or other functionaries, all belonged to the scholastic body.
At this epoch appears, for the first time, the foundation of a college for the maintenance of ten poor scholars who were to follow the university course. This was an institution of private benevolence, due to the philanthropy of Dr. Diogo Affonso Manga-ancha, who in his will left the regulations to be followed for its administration. The college, however, lasted but a short time; indeed, in Portugal, never did the colleges annexed to the University attain any importance, nor did they become consolidated as they did in other universities, particularly in English ones. In Coimbra they did exist later on, as we shall see when I come to speak of the second period, and they even formed part of the organism of the University.
It was also during the protectorate of the Infante D. Henrique, that the religious of Saint Francis obtained a Bull from Pope Nicholas V., granting them the privilege of having their studies incorporated with the University, and that the masters, students, and readers of their monastery in Lisbon should be admitted to degrees.
The Laughing Mill, and other because, being obliged by the subStories. By JULIAN HAWTHORNE. ject to soar above the level of Macmillan & Co. 1879.
vulgar possibility, the writers catch Archibald Malmaison. Same a gleam of transcendent sunlight author. Bentley and Son. 1879. on their wings. And he who would
In these two volumes Mr. Julian mirror in his works the whole of Hawthorne has been pleased to man, must needs include the im. lead his readers into strange pas- possible along with the rest. Whotures. In “ The Laughing Mill ” ever has lived thoughtfully feels he avowedly takes them for an that there has been something in his “excursion mystery-ward.” And experience beyond what appears in all the four stories which make up
Tom Jones, Adam Bede,' and the volume contain something very * Vanity Fair.' They are earth mysterious indeed, and in the case without sky.. . . A reader with a of two of them something not very healthy sense of justice feels that agreeable. In fact, Mr. Hawthorne an occasional excursion mystery. has taken a dip into the horrible, ward is no more than he has a and then looks back-laughing, as right to demand. And such exit were—in his preface,—to see if cursions are wholesome for literahis readers follow him. Whether ture, no less than for him. For they do or no he seems scarcely to the storyteller, sensible of the care, having hit upon a somewhat risk he runs of making his supernew idea of the duty of a writer in natural element appear crude and this respect, which he thus explains ridiculous, exerts himself to the to us :
utmost, and his style and method “What is called the human purify and wax artistic under the interest in fiction is doubtless more strain.” absorbing than any other, but Thus excused, Mr. Hawthorne other legitimate sources of interest offers a strange collection of mysexist. The marvellous always teries, which, though unearthly, possesses a fascination, and justly; are yet not supernatural. They are for, while it is neither human imaginative, and as Mr. Hawthorne nature nor fact, it ministers to an is gifted with imagination beyond æsthetic appetite of the mind, most writers of the day, they are, which neither fact nor human course, interesting. nature can gratify. Superstition Laughing Mill,” itself is perhaps has been well abused; but that the one of the stories most fully were a sad day which should behold bearing out the promise of the the destruction in us of the quality preface. Mr. Hawthorne has seized which keeps superstition alive. upon that feeling which many of
Such works as The Tem- us must have experienced at one pest, Faust,' and Consuelo, time or another, a feeling that inshow their authors at their best, animate or natural subjects seem
sometimes to become possessed of weather that one might have a certain amount of spirit, when fancied it charred by fire. they have been intimately asso- The rain and snow of unrecorded ciated with any intense human seasons had spread the rust in state; and out of this he has streaks and blotches
over the evolved a strange fantastic story. swarthy rottenness of the woodwork The description of the old water until I could almost have believed wheel, which is the centre of the it dabbled with unsightly stains of picture, has an element of the blood. ... Solitary as I stood weirdly supernatural, which is very there, I yet could not rid myself fine and vivid. Mrs. Radcliffe of the notion that I was not in the was a mistress of the art of thrilling ordinary sense of the word) alone. the reader by her weird unearthly That wheel—there was something descriptions; and that, too, though about it more than belongs to she never indulged, except by quo- mere
negative brute matter. tation, in the actually supernatural; It seemed not devoid of a low but as Leigh Hunt remarks, and evil form of consciousness, she understood to perfection the almost of personality.” use of old castles, haunted houses, Georges Sand gives a horror of mysterious music, &c., &c. She this kind to a certain wooded hill : used recognised stage scenery. but, like Mrs. Radcliffe, she ex“ Ludovico, meanwhile, in his re- plains everything: there are under mote chamber, heard now and then ground chambers here, and lights the faint echo of a closing door as are seen sometimes, and beings the family retired to rest; and then appear suddenly. Mr. Hawthorne the hall clock, at a great distance, goes far deeper in allowing that struck twelve. • It is midnight, this horror of a certain spot may said he, and he looked suspiciously exist without any explicable reason. round the spacious chamber.' “Calbot's Rival,” which comes We know now that we are going next in the book, is a clever ghost to be frightened; the stage is story, but without this deeper ready for the ghost. Mr. Haw. element of suggestiveness which thorne coolly dispenses with all make one dwell upon “ The Laughthese accessories of fear, and takes ing Mill.” his reader for a walk by the sea
Gainsborough's Diashore beneath a blue sky. Yet he monds ” is even more clever still succeeds in imparting the un- though it is not a ghost story at earthly character to the beautiful all, but only a very ingeniously gorge, “ full of sunlight and ver- constructed and cunningly worked dure," in the midst of which hangs out deception, recalling some of the the old water-wheel, and this by a eldrich mockeries of T. B. Aldrich. few simple but masterly touches. There is one feature in the story
“The blue sky seemed farther which is perplexing: why, when away from this than from other Tom Gainsborough had been so parts of the earth's surface, and atrociously taken in and swindled methought the sun shone upon it by one brunette with weird eyes rather in mockery than in love. beneath black eyebrows, should he Nearly midway down the hollow, marry another lady of the same and just under the second cataract typeř Mr. Hawthorne does not hung a huge water-wheel. . . . It stay to inform us of the reason for was built of wood, on a clumsy and this extraordinary likeness between old-fashioned model, and had be- Tom's two sweethearts, whose discome so blackened by age and positions are so different. One is