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servants, and the swell mob. Do links in the chain ; but the bare they come next to him in rank? imitators of each would drop clean No. The classes who really out of your consideration : those approach the upper, as a general who had copied these great writers rule, have an order and manner of might, indeed, constitute a subortheir own—a manner determined dinate series by themselves, but by their rank, and which flows you


never place them naturally enough from the func- between Shakespeare and Milton. tions they have to perform. They Shakespeare's imitators are far are joined to the upper classes, more like Shakespeare in form not by virtue of apishness—which, than is Milton; Milton's imitators wherever it does exist, is a cause are altogether unlike either in of disjunction-but because they essence, because they have no accomplish indispensable


poetic originality; and Milton without which rank itself must and Shakespeare themselves are stand nearly on the bare ground, allied, not by similarity of form like a statue without a pedestal. but by harmony of variety; each Such also is the relation of man contributing something which the and animals. The animal which is other could not give, to realise an imitation of man does not enter that which was the common end into the grouping that nature of both, namely, the exaltation of brings about between the human human art. race and those good and useful “Take another illustration, borcreatures that adorn our fields and rowed from language, which also gather round our homesteads; for is an organic reality, and shows in the ape is no more next to man in its use that the higher intellectual the nature of things than the powers are constantly working to actor is next to the monarch he produce a unity, not out of personates, or the valet next to the similars, but out of dis-similars. I peer.

before stated that existing classifi“It is true the ape is like man, cations may be likened to dictiondisgustingly like; but this very aries of animated nature, and the fact it is that degrades him and parallel involves

parallel involves an interesting removes him from his prototype; truth. In an ordinary dictionary, for he is a copy without a useful the words of a language are character of his own; and the brought together by the rule of poorest creature with an originality literal similarity; and a mighty is nearer to man in essence than convenient thing such a dictionary he.

is. But, in making use of language “Indeed, there is no real order, an instrument of thought, we whether in history, art, or science, depart at once from the order of the but exemplifies the same thing. dictionary; and in proportion as Take the similars, copies, or the subject lifts us into the art of simiæ in any case, and you will expression, we avoid the similari. find you cannot construct a series ties of sound, lest the progressive by placing them next to the origi- spiral of ideas should be drawn nals. Were it wished, for in- back into a circle of jingling stance, to construct a series of terms. Now, there is just the English poets, and to show the

difference between the order in which genius was suc- present method of the naturalist ceeded by genius, you would pro- and the method of nature that bably

Shakespeare and there is between a dictionary and Milton as two of the brightest a grand composition: the former





coheres by a single thread, namely, “Were a theory of developments the rule of uniformity; the latter sound in itself, and even the is a connected tissue of ends, animal kingdom that from which means, and uses, and the bond of

man was to arise, still the world's connection throughout is the har- master could proceed from no one monious working of the parts, all animal, but the whole kingdom with each, and each with all. Is must be developed at once to proit not, then, curious that classifica- duce him; and this, not by an tion should be based exclusively evolution of forms, but by a upon similarities, when the group- spiritual outgrowth, expansion, ing of nature is effected between and concentration; in which case dissimilars ? It argues little for

we have recourse to a principle the docility of the human mind which virtually extinguishes the that it persists in substituting a theory of development, so far at single kind of order, and that the least as it is one-sided, and attrilowest, for the combined order of butes activities to nature which creation; and this, too, so long can only belong to the Creator.” after Bacon began to expound the The question, “What animal inductive method, and taught that comes next to man? involves in its man is the minister and inter- statement a radical inaccuracy. It preter of nature.' It is also is based upon the notion that man, curious that the prime link in as a physical being, is a part of the our classification-İ

the so-called animal kingdom, whereas relation of man to the monkey- I hold that, instead of a part, he is should be typical of all schemes the animal kingdom itself, and conof the kind, as involving a series tains all below him, as the universal in which different forms ape each includes the partial, or the accomother, without any bond of prin- plished end the mewns; and thereciple or use."

fore, if we are to have a theory of There is here much that is in evolution, we must seek the matrix many ways suggestive and valu- of the human race not in the able, and a fair corrective to the animal but in the vegetable king. dogmatic straitness of too rigidly dom, from which, according to any scientific a conclusion.

such theory, the animal kingdom The following passage is a must originally have been evolved. formal expression of a doctrine But in this case the question, which receives support from the What animal comes next to man? universal consciousness of

would be changed into this other that he is not next of kin to any question, In what order do animals one animal, but that his relation stand, as ministering to human is to the animal kingdom viewed uses, and representing the scale of as a whole, and as a subordinate human faculties ? For, as all crowd to which he is immeasurably animals are related to man by use superior. His superiority being or its opposite, and as they all moreover not by a small difference shadow forth somewhat of his of one kind with regard to this mental constitution, so are they all animal, a trifling step above that, proximate to

some part of his a success in a brotherly rivalry nature.” with another, but by the possession The two poles of the argument of an undefined quality which regarding the relation of animals makes him immeasurably removed to man seem to be, on the one side, from jealousy of any, from compe- things are to be reckoned accord. tition or comparison with any. ing to their uses, which are full of


significance; on the other, things as the monkey, alternately amuse are according to their origin, and disgust us by their cleverness, differentiated only by the fortuitous cunning, and perverse limitations. inclination of a balance which has But the domestic animals, prohonoured some in relation to cir- perly so called, have one distin. cumstance, while leaving others to guishing trait, the power of yieldtake inferior rank. The difficulty ing obedience to a being higher in substantiating the latter position, than themselves, which power which is the favoured one of science, practically is the representation of is no trifling one, in view of the wisdom. Such a power no animal fact that the secret of the origina- can exhibit which is not either tion of life is as yet as closely domesticated or domesticable.” hidden within the mystical region With regard to this matter of of the unknown, even to the priests domestication, however, the arguwithin the very shrine of science, ment seems to lose reference to the as is that margin of the unverifi. matter of man's inherent relation able, which the thoughtful and to the animal world, when we earnest man is scorned for occupy- consider that animals have little ing by a rational faith rather than personal relation to man unless he by a defiant agnosticism.

makes it. Perhaps the robinAre the many relations of man redbreast shows a tendency to to the animals to be slightly domestic attachments-no doubt in regarded, in order that the one great part inherited—but certainly relation of physical organisation no wild horse or elephant seeks shall be made prominent? Are a domestication. He must first be host of "

great broad facts to pass bribed and cajoled by man's infor nothing, simply because the tellect, so immeasurably removed horse," a faithful humble com- from his own as regards quality, panion, mucb


than or must be entrapped by that mocking mimic,“ does not ape man pung master whose power to the in external appearance ? Is the animal intelligence, were it gifted harmony they imply between man with analysis, must seem nothing and the domestic animals, the short of magical. harmony of use and variety, to be What purpose any animal has overlooked by the scientific natura- in himself, out of relation to man, list because it puts him out of is as great a problem of creation those first leading strings of the as are the destiny and status of human mind, similarities of form? man himself, and the meaning of If it so, he must continue for his life. But animals must have ever to be a dictionary-maker, and some purpose on their own plane, an order of men must be insti. and out of reference to ours. tuted for the investigation of Countless myriads of creatures nature.”

live out their busy life in the ocean “The mental qualities of the depths, with

depths, with such idiosyncracy domestic animals show precisely that stretch of fancy can the same thing as their natural connect their life in any way with groupings. In them alone do we man's. They are even outside the recognise an analogy with the beautiful Adamite picture of man's highest qualities of the human replenishing the earth and submind. All animals, indeed, mani- duing it. How shall man subdue fest peculiar faculties, tending to a million-million invisibles at the self-preservation and to the perpe

bottom of the sea ? In this aspect tuation of their species; and some, man is scarcely even the crown of



the animal kingdom-he is out of sary food. Thus the carnivora of relation with it. Man is only in Central Africa are more developed part within that kingdom after and more tenacious of life than the all. He is the prince, but not the herbivorous animals on which they absolute king; not the true monarch prey; the latter are thus prevented who works invisibly, holding his from multiplying unduly, though domain even within the smallest their entire extinction, of course, atomic entity of his universe. would be fatal even to their antaWe shall have to come back to

gonists." the old idea of a plan in creation,

As the plan and purpose of and rest in some kind of faith in human life differs so essentially the old childlike way, which is from that of any animal group after all more like the world's whatever, may we not fairly conhighest and most poetical ideal, clude that the physiological resem. than is the new arrogance. An blances mark the point at which we unseen hand holds the balance, and most nearly touch the animal stops the rude haste even of the world ? Man has come into nature; favoured scions of natural selection. there must be therefore a point of As Professor Bowen observes in contact between the form he takes, the North American Review for and some form in Nature's reperNovember, 1879: "The anthropoid tory. He owes parentage to God, apes are assumed to be highly the to Nature, who is a servant developed species of monkeys, but only, and only nurse to man. Two they certainly seem to have gained lumps of clay, though one may no advantage in the battle of life contain within it a jewel of gold, their lower

competitors the other a jewel of silver, will, if through their superior organisation, brought sharply into contact from but rather to have lost ground in opposite points, show very similar the struggle, since they are rela- surfaces on the planes of contively so inferior in numbers that tact. Here is an animal form, they appear to be in some danger of close to it is a form which has extinction. Through being more

been converted to different purprolific, less dainty in feeding, and poses, and drawn to a different abler to support changes of climate plane. The animals


be made and other altered conditions of life, into friends by man, but they are the monkeys evidently have the not relations. Their souls belong better chance of survival. But the to a different sphere of life and higher apes certainly will not be activity. God is man's true relacrowded out of life merely by the tion; Nature his friend, not his greater numbers of those below relation, save in part, and for a them, since they are abundantly time. The laws which the highest able to protect themselves against

of brute animals follow are essensuch encroachment. Here, again, tially different from ours, being the balance of opposing tendencies infinitely simpler. Man has qualiseems to keep the relative numbers ties which so inordinately transin the competing species within cend the machinery of life's daily definite limits, without permitting detail-all-sufficient as it is for the the complete triumph of either brute-that it becomes a rational party. In man cases the existence necessity to predicate for humanity and the greater fecundity of the a future, either by an indefinite inferior races is a condition of the transfiguration of earth to the level survival of those above them, who of his need, or by a prolongation are thus supplied with their neces- of the life of the individual under


circumstances more plastic and most brutal man, as compared

with sublimated. As civilised man has the highest anthropoid ape? Thoy his circle, where the actors who have no resemblance. The ape is amuse and excite form a separate perfect after his kind; the man is class, so in all spheres may be one an emptiness, a region which the department devoted to sheer imita- neglectful soul is not governing tion and amusement. In nature's aright. He must be judged, and sphere the chattering ape is the indeed judges himself, in the low comedian, representing the spiritual struggles of what we may jocose side of nature's heart; the vaguely know as thousands of singing bird, to carry out the allu

years. To judge him by one small sion, is the representative of joy, a visible fragment of his career taken more lofty religious quality. in isolation, is to estimate him in

To conclude such unscientific adequately, and therefore judge speculation, what is the lowest and unfairly.

K. C.

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