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CONTENTS

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62, 123 268, 331

Van Diepen, Vann H.:

Testimony

Prepared statement
Walsh Jim, Ph.D.:

Testimony
Prepared statement

101 313

APPENDIX

90

355 369 377

379

387 396 414

Hon. Joseph R. Biden, Jr., a U.S. Senator from the State of Delaware, Novem

ber 29, 2001, prepared statement
Information submitted for the record by Mr. Billingslea entitled “Nuclear

Non-Proliferation Treaty and the International Atomic Energy Agency"
Copy of S. 673
S. 673–Section by Section Analysis
USEC Inc., Executive Agent for the U.S. Government Implementing the

Megatons to Megawatts Program, prepared statement, November 14, 2002 :
Appendix -: Current and Future Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

Proliferation Threats
Appendix -: Background on Non-proliferation Assistance Programs
Appendix -: Multilateral Nonproliferation Regimes
Questions submitted for the Record by Senator Akaka with answers from:

Mr. Christoff
Mr. Cupitt
Mr. Lewis
Mr. Milhollin
Mr. Billingslea
Mr. Borman
Ms. Harris
Ms. Smithson
Mr. Walsh
Mr. Gormley

Mr. Van Diepen
Questions submitted for the Record by Senator Cleland with answers from:

Ms. Harris
Ms. Smithson

Mr. Gromley
Questions submitted for the Record by Senator Thompson with answers from:

Mr. Van Diepen
Mr. Billingslea

417 420 423 425 427 429 430 435 441 459 466

434 440

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485

CURRENT AND FUTURE WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION (WMD) PROLIFERATION

THREATS

WEDNESDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 2001

U.S. SENATE,
INTERNATIONAL SECURITY, PROLIFERATION,

AND FEDERAL SERVICES SUBCOMMITTEE,
OF THE COMMITTEE ON GOVERNMENTAL AFFAIRS,

Washington, DC. The Subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 2:33 p.m., in room SD-342, Dirksen Senate Office Building, Hon. Daniel Akaka, Chairman of the Subcommittee, presiding.

Present: Senators Akaka, Cleland, Carper, Cochran, Stevens, and Thompson.

OPENING STATEMENT OF SENATOR AKAKA Senator AKAKA. The Subcommittee will please come to order. I welcome my friend, Senator Cleland, and our first panel.

Today's hearing about export controls and weapons of mass destruction is not a new topic for this Subcommittee. Senator Cochran, our distinguished Ranking Member and good friend, also held hearings on export controls when he chaired this Subcommittee. It is not a partisan issue. I think it is fair to say that our witnesses today, who are all noted experts on the subject of proliferation and export controls, reflect the bipartisan nature of this discussion.

Since September 11, however, developing an effective approach to controlling the spread of weapons of mass destruction to both state and non-state actors has taken a new urgency. The terrorists of the 21st Century are not intent on using one bullet to assassinate political leaders, as did the lone Serbian nationals who triggered the First World War at the beginning of the last century with the shooting of Archduke Ferdinand in Sarajevo. Twenty-first Century terrorists strive to cause the maximum amount of damage to the maximum number of innocent people. Their weapons of choice are amazingly simple and astoundingly deadly. But they are still the few against the many.

As one of our witnesses today notes, contemporary terrorists have a mystical fascination with chemical, biological, and radiological weapons. Osama bin Laden and his followers would use these weapons to harm us all without regard to age, gender, or nationality. Men, women, and children from over 50 nations died on September 11. We cannot forget this fact as we prepare for future

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