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able in beaded necklaces, and sacred hearts, and crosses white or black, golden or gemmed, that grace the bosoms of the fair. It is manifest in the monks' sonorois chant, in the hymn all redolent of cloister and convent, in sanctus, anthem, Te Deum, that everywhere are so fondly sung, and that resound in our Nonconformist meeting-houses, making the very bones of our stern Puritanic forefathers to shake in their tombs. It would be proof of bad taste, of the vulgarity which marks Dissent, to speak with disapprobation of these things as Popish vanities of sight and sound, as meretricious adornings and musical enchantments best befitting the scarlet Lady of the Seven Hills. It would certainly show an unpardonable bluntness of the æsthetic faculty not to behold and admire the beautiful wherever it is to be found, and it would indicate intense stupidity and a purblind dulness of mental discernment most discreditable “in educated circles" not to be able to distinguish between the outward accidents and accompaniments of a false system and its essential spirit. Nevertheless, it will not, I think, be denied that this invasion of fashionable mediævalism, this love of the antique which has grown up with artistic culture and the weariness of a bald and inelegant utility, is a most useful ally of the priest and the confessional.

There must be, however, something other than the favouring circumstances of the time to account for the success of this great religious movement. It has won but few converts from the outside world, and made still fewer perverts from Nonconformist churches. It has spread chiefly within the pale of the national Establishment, taking possession almost bodily of this ancient church, and making itself the predominant and most powerful element in its religious life. How is this? What is the secret of this extraordinary suc

First and foremost must we place in our enumeration of ascertainable causes, the firm, unwavering faith of its leaders. In the midst of doubting, hesitating, half-sceptical enunciations of truth, they come forward with bold avowal of adherence to ancient dogmas. They believe, and therefore speak. Whoever hesitates, they do not. Whoever speaks of Christian

doctrine 66 with 'bated breath and whispering humbleness," they do not. Whoever pares down his creed to suit the temper of advanced criticism, they do not. Their faith is sicklied o'er with no pale cast of doubt. Against the modern sceptical scientific world, they put the authority of the venerable, the ancient, the apostolic church, the church which has numbered in its fellowship the finest spirits of antiquity and a host of martyred saints, and has controlled the course of the centuries. What care they for the carping Sadducean quibbles of science falsely so called, or the brilliant and polished shafts of rationalistic criticism. The Church has withstood such attacks any day for two thousand years, and her shield is invulnerable still. Faith begets faith. Confidence wins confidence. The accent of conviction in the teacher gives the persuasion of certainty to the hearer.

The bold, fearless statement, however erroneous, is often accepted, when truth itself, delivered in apologetic tone, minced and mangled by a merciless criticism, is powerless to convince. Evangelical doctrines emptied of strong faith, the half-despairing search after truth of broader and more cultured minds, can gain no power over the people comparable to that which is gained by an unflinching, uncompromising sturdiness of assurance. If evangelical systems are changing their front somewhat in presence of the foe, mediæval sacerdotalism changes not, and marches in firm compact phalanx to easy, if short-lived, triumph. Nor must it be overlooked that battle is given by these brave combatants from ranks well-disciplined and equipped. The best modern defences of our faith are from this school of theologians. Dr. Pusey's “Daniel" is a masterpiece of scholarship and argument in maintenance of the inspiration of God's written word. If too polemical in its structure and too bitter and confident in its spirit, it is unquestionably one of the ablest vindications of the orthodox view of prophecy and revelation that modern times have produced. Mr. Liddou's “Lectures on the Divinity of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ" is perhaps the most learned, the most eloquent, the most complete and exhaustive reply that has yet been given to the mythical and romantic theories

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of our Lord's life, and it forms an admirable and compendious manual of the evidences of our Christian faith. Moreover, in this new crusade, oratory and song united in the beginning to create a martial enthusiasm, and in due time the scepic art of ritualism has supplied the pomp and circumstance of

In its early days the pulpit sounded out with no uncertain voice the watch words of the new revival, and poetry breathed its inspiration into young and ardent natures. Under the spell of ancient years, from Oxford's time hoary and venerable halls, with the solemn, impressive appeals of Newman's deep, earnest preaching filling the soul, and with the soothing strains of Keble's meditative muse murmuring in the ear, our AngloCatholic host went forth upon its mission in this modern world.

But neither the faith nor the culture of these champions of priestly dogmas surpasses their piety and zeal. Devotion of the Thomas à Kempis type, with its rapt meditation upon the passion of Christ, it has been their aim to revive. Intense personal realization of the agony and sufferings of the Saviour; vivid sympathetic fellowship with Him in His love for a fallen world; deep yearning desire after complete mortifying of the flesh and the perfecting of holiness in the fear of the Lord; the contempt of luxury, wealth, and worldly gains; the overpowering conviction of the awful realities of eternity,—these are the great features of religious experience of which their sermons and devotional books are full. The masterspirit of the first years of this movement, Dr. Newman, prays for a "holy sternness” to temper "the languid unmeaning benevolence misnamed Christian love." He looks to God to send "a severe discipline, the order of St. Paul and St. John," a witness for Christ fresh from His presence, knowing the terror of the Lord, not shrinking to proclaim the divine wrath against sin and unbelief, declaring the narrowness of the way of life, the difficulty of attaining heaven, the necessity of taking up our cross, the excellence and beauty of self-denial and austerity. He goes further,—and herein reveals the real quality of the school of piety he sought to introduce, --he expresses the firm conviction that the country would gain“ were it vastly more super

stitious, more bigoted, more gloomy, more fierce in its religion than at present it shows itself to be." Not that these tempers of mind are desirable, but that they are “infinitely more desirable than a heathen obduracy, a cold, self-sufficient and self wise tranquil lity.” On the other hand he gives, now and then, a glimpse of brighter and more cheerful moods, and while counselling "obedience to the church" as a religious duty, he recognises, like a true Protestant, that “the religious history of each individual is as solitary and complete as the history of the world." So speaks Dr. Newman in discourses which left their impress deep and strong upon the Anglo-Catholic revival in its earlier years. Of late, with the fervour and zeal of a Methodist, Dr. Pusey maintains, “The contest for souls is the one history of earth. Everything is of moment as it bears upon it.” “We have something inore to do in this world than to pass through it and be just saved ourselves some how by the mercy of Jesus.” " A deluge of evil,” he exclaims, with passionate fervour, seems to overspread the world. Who, in this vast wilderness of souls, seems ever to think of Jesus, or to win others to think of Jesus ? Poor Jesus ! He seems to wander through the world as when He was in the flesh, and not to find where to lay His head! Where are the hearts that respond to His love ? . . . Everywhere we see bars and bolts to keep out Jesus, but where is there a home for Him? Where are the breasts on which He may rest? Where are they who mourn for sin and for the loss of souls, and for the dishonour done to Jesus and His love ? Where are they who zealously seek for His lost sheep in the wilderness? ... • The piece of silver' may be trampled upon in the mire of Babylon. It had the image and superscription of God. It may be cleansed anew by the blood of Jesus to shine for ever around the eternal throne."

Moreover, other tokens of earnestness and zeal may be observed beside the utterances of a fervent piety. It has been reserved for this party in the busy activity of our day to restore daily service in the churches. It is their distinguishing characteristic to be careful more of the religious life of the church than of its connection with


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the State. It is to them we are led to look, not to the evangelical party, as the allies of Nonconformists in liberating religion from State patronage and control. It is in their proceedings we note the inconsistency sure to mark a zealous spirit, and the innovations which vigorous life will certainly make necessary. It is among them, more perhaps than among committees of Evangelical Churchmen, that we find how the restraints of rubric and ritual may be overleaped in the eager desire to save souls. It is they, too, who warn the faithful against making too much of external ordinances, and admonish them “not to forget the intense reality of existence, the inward growth of God's reign in the heart," oneness with God" as end of all His revelation and of His sacraments," "the salvation of souls" as that "for which He became man and put His Holy Spirit within us in some outward accidents of worship.” It is among then that unceasing prayer is offered for God's converting grace to be poured out upon the world, that one unbroken chain of continuous intercession for the souls of men is kept up, night and day, by relay after relay of the “Companions of the Love of Jesus," of whom Dr. Pusey is a brother, and to whom in their “Retreat” for the renewal of fervour he addressed eleven remarkable discourses. And it is by them that recently for a number of days together, in more than a hundred churches of the metropolis, as a vigorous and united attack upon the worldliness and sin of the great city, special services bave been held of a most extraordinary character, attended, it is computed, by at least thirty-five thousand souls.

Our survey, brief and imperfect though it is, must close; but our conclusion cannot, we think, be mistaken. The first leaders of this movement, whose success is assuredly no unmixed evil, had been nurtured in evangelical truth, and took with them a remembrance and tincture of their early religious experience. But the current soon set Romeward, and vainly did Keble's gentle spirit seek to divert it from its course. Newman went, and Manning, and the two Wilberforces, and one by one others followed. The only goal and resting-place of the Anglo-Catholic, the only logical con

clusion of all his reasonings, is Rome. He is even now a Roman Catholic, only with the insular antipathy and traditional independence of the Englishman. Father Hyacinthe might easily take orders with him without adding a single element of Protestantism to his creed ; and Father Hyacinthe, an avowedly conscientious though refractory Catholic, would be the more liberal man. But let us judge our Anglican fairly, and weigh well his devotedness and faith. No sympathy whatever can we feel with Romisb superstition and sacerdotal pride, yet we cannot but profoundly admire religious earnestness and zeal. It is not, most assuredly, from the falsehood men hold, but from the truth connected with it that life and power are drawn. Beneath the superincumbent mass of tradition and error there may be buried somewhere the foundations of essential truth. It is to Christ the world is invited even when the Church, the priest, the sacrament, are interposed between the sinner and his Saviour, between the soul and its Lord. Who can tell, then, how many may find Him by this circuitous route, however difficult and perilous that route may be ? At least let charity hope for the best, and let wisdom learn, as learn it may even from an enemy, a lesson of duty and devotion. The faith of these men is corrupt, but it is faith, not doubt. Their piety is morbid and stern at its best, but it is earnest and apparently sincere. In their religious experience there seems no light bounding joyousness of heart that comes from a clear unclouded view of the fulness of God's love and the infinite sufficiency of a Saviour's death, but there is power in their religion, a power which seems to spring from fellowship with the Unseen, and communion with the “Man of Sorrows." The recent outbreaks of excessive zeal are not perhaps the spasmodic movements of a galvanized life, they may be rather as the spray and foam that break from a wave of mighty influence and force. But there is no occasion for alarm as though we were all to be swept back into the pale of Old Rome. The word has gone forth, the doom is written on her history with the finger of God,- Babylon shall fall. Yet there is reason for us to see to it that our purer and diviner principles are not the mere watchwords of party, but the


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Revelations of Life in London,

21 sources of spiritual inspiration and brokenly for the conversion of souls ? power,—that we do not hold them Is our communion with Christ closer simply as geometrical propositions be- and more frequent because it is not cause they are true, but rather use through the inedium of “the Church' them as means of grace and helps to and the “priest,” but direct, personal, divine service,-and that our religion and spiritual ? There is reason, and is not a something outside us and about great reason, for us to seek that in this us and around 118, but in us, in woven new year of our Lord, in this new ceninto the whole fabric of our being, the tury of our churches, we may prove, intensest reality of our inward con- by God's good hand upon us, in our sciousness and life. There is reason abounding toil and unwearied devofor us to ask, do we outstrip in earnest- tion, that a pure faith and a simple ness, in courage, in devotion, the men ritual are mightier for God, and win whose errors we deplore, and whose more signal successes than the corrupt follies we abhor? Does our zeal call superstitions of priestcraft, and all the down the world's scorn ?

pomp and splendour of Romne. prayers go up unceasingly and un

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No. 1.-The Greatness and Growth of the City. LONDON is a vast and awful problem. souls. The City of London-only a “What city is like unto this great square mile in area-is inhabited by city ?" From the days of the Romans 112,063 persons; but the enormous to those of the illustrious Victoria it number of 420,000 people have been has been developing in extent, popula- known to enter and leave it in one day, tion, influence, wealth, splendour, and and that day an ordinary one. There mystery, until it towers high over all is a story told of a man who stood up other British cities, and combines in in a doorway waiting until the crowd itself the characteristics of Nineveh, passed by, but he soon found it was no Tyre, Rome, Athens, Corinth, and Jeru- use waiting. In some parts of the galem. Few men know London. Thou- City the crowds of foot passengers are sands of its patives do not know it. It astounding. Let any one stand in the is a province covered with houses. It gateway leading to Dr. Parker's chapel, is a kingdom comprising wondrous in the Poultry, and a hundred persons parts. It is a moral difficulty of awful will pass him every minute for hours profoundness and ever-increasing in- together! And all of them are imterest. Hence, mere visitors to London mortal, and need a Saviour to guide know little about its recesses, its tribes, them to the city of God. I wonder its deserts, its crowded haunts, its hos- how many of them are saved with an pitals and prisons, the strange pursuits everlasting salvation. of its varied thousands, the bright vir- “ Run over and killed," is a common tues which adorn, and the hateful vices mode of announcing the death of a which defile it. To know London we large number of Londoners, and, also, must live in it, love it, pray for it, and of visitors, because they do not always explore it fearlessly by day and night know how to avoid the dangers of the for years together, and even then many streets. And, from the incessant traffic, of its secrets will remain unveiled. these dangers are very great. It is

Look at the extent of London as de- possible that a man much abroad in fined by the Board of Works, it covers London is often in greater bodily fear an area of one hundred and twenty than Dr. Livingstone in the deserts of square miles; and no city in ancient or Africa. Let any one count the vehicles modern times ever contained so much passing along a great metropolitan life as that unparalleled area. It is the highway, and he will soon see how eighth wonder of the world. It throbs perilous it is to cross it in the busy with excitement; it never stagnates ; hours of the day. Nine thousand it is never still. The population exist- vehicles have been counted at Holborn ing within this area is about 3,463,777 Hill, twelve thousand in Fleet Street,

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and nineteen thousand on London apprehension, it will be seen that there Bridge, in one day! We need not, is not a constable too many. Beer, therefore, wonder that many are run wine, and gin, play their part in this over and killed in the streets.

drama of crime. As many as 16,000 Any one visiting London will be persons are yearly “brought up" for painfully impressed by the number of intemperance, and riotous conduct inplaces where intoxicants are sold. Of duced by it. Besides these drunken these there are now, I believe, more people there are fourteen thousand than ten thousand-all of them sources thieves, tramps, pick-pockets, receivers of poverty, misery, and irreligion. of stolen goods, &c., who need looking Were they built side by side they after, and they need a good many would extend a distance of thirty miles policemen to prevent their robbing us and more. Happily, counteracting in the streets, and murdering us in our agencies are at work in Temperance beds. Societies and Bands of Hope. In con- London can be seen very far off at nection with the United Kingdom Band night. Standing on Hampstead Heath, of Hope Union about fifty thousand or any elevated spot, in the dark stili children have signed the pledge, and night, it seems all ablaze. I have seen this, surely, is a presage of good in it when it looked on fire. This arises days to come.

from the immense array of window, As London contains four hundred shop, and street lights. Quite four thousand houses, and as four thousand hundred thousand lights illuminate the houses have just been finished, there metropolis, and they consume fourteen are an immense number of persons who million cubic feet of gas between evenfind employment in connection with ing and morning! And yet there are them. There are 18,000 plasterers, dark places which are full of the habi71,000 bricklayers, and 85,000 masons. tations of cruelty, and lonely spots There is one baker for every 1,206 where murder might be done as easily people, one butcher for every 1,533, as on Salisbury Plain. I have found one grocer for every 1,800, and, alas! people sleeping where others would one seller of strong drink to every not expect to find a homeless dog 668-showing that more money is in his lair, and know places where spent on beer than on bread.

wretched ones have died as desolate The destitution existing in London as shipwrecked mariners on uninis, in one view of it, a great mystery. habited islands. Light often makes There is really no end to the charity of the darkness more dense, and not far Londoners, and yet poverty and pau- from beautiful houses and flaming perism increase every year. The total streets are hideous spots where no amount of money, food, clothing, coal, lamp shines, nor hope springs eternal medicine, &c., bestowed upon the


in the human breast. classes surpasses all the calculations of Great London must be fed. It is persons not accustomed to such matters. never dyspeptic. It always wants Here are figures to astonish quiet folk

All climes contribute to its who live in the country. The amount larder, and every island of the sea of public charity is £4,225,640; of local sends it some dainty morsel. Three charity, £559,000; of house and per- railways brought into it, in one year, sonal charity, £2,520,000; and of legal 36,000 tons of meat! Ostend sent charity, £1,200,000–a sum of eight 600,000 rabbits. The Great Western millions annually expended in charity poured in a million gallons of milk. and helping the poor, and yet, as I Norway forwards shiploads of fish. have said, poverty and pauperism are Normandy often sends three millions ever on the increase. Things would of eggs in a week. And yet, alas ! probably change if all the public houses thousands are never fed, but pine and were closed seven days a week.

die in silent despair. Such a vast population as that of warehouse, shop, and market is full, London requires, of course, an arıny of and millions of gold are buried in the police to protect it and to keep it in vaults of the Bank of England, there order. About eight thousand con- are unfortunate wretches falling dead stables seems a large number; but in the streets from sheer starvation. when we find that in one year 63,000 But man does not, and cannot, live persons made themselves liable to by bread alone. He needs life from


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