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writings of the apostles as a "mere comment" on the words of Jesus contained in the Gospels is to give an altogether inadequate representation of the case. The apostles used their own phraseology and modes of illustra tion, but when they spoke concerning the things of the kingdom it was virtually Christ speaking through them. And since it was the same Lord who spoke, now through the medium of His human body, and now by His Spirit operating on the minds of His apostles, the same devout regard ought to be paid to His commandments in the one case as in the other. If Christ, "ere to heaven He rose," bade His church attend to the precepts He had already given, He also taught her to expect the further teaching of His Spirit after His ascension; and we show but partial proof of our loyalty to Him if we study the words spoken by Him to her in her days of infancy and neglect His messages conveyed to her in her maturer years. To the writer it appears that the words which fell from the Master's lips" during the time of His earthly sojourn do not "include all that men need to know;" for if so He would not Himself have promised His Spirit to teach them further truth; nor would the apostles have claimed to be the recipients of further revelations. On this point, unless I have mistaken our friend Mr. Cox's meaning, we differ in opinion; but as there may be misapprehension on my part, I add no more on this head until he shall have had opportunity of giving explanations.


There is another point, not perhaps of much practical consequence but rather of historical and literary interest, in which I venture to think he has shewn a little forgetfulness. He represents the divisions of Christendom during the last three hundred years as having been based upon dogmas which the churches have found, or thought they have found, mainly in the writings of Paul. I presume that Mr. Cox had in his mind the Calvinistic controversy, with regard to which his remark is probably true. But I think that on reflection he will see that three out of four of the great religious controversies which since the time of the Reformation have divided Christian men, have turned upon their different interpretations not of Paul's teachings, but of the words of Christ in the Gos

pels. Take the great Romish controversy. Do not the disputants chiefly appeal to such passages as Matt. xvi. 18, 19, "I say also unto thee, That thou art Peter, and upon this rock I will build my church," &c. Matt. xviii. 18; John xx. 22, 23, "Whose soever sins ye remit, they are remitted unto them; and whose soever sins ye retain they are retained?" Nay, the very words of Christ which serve as a text to Mr. Cox's paper are words to which intelligent Romanists appeal more frequently than any other in support of their foundation dogmas of Church-tradition and Infallibility. What is it which for the past three hundred years has divided the Lutheran and Reformed Churches of the Continent but their different interpretations of our Lord's words, "This is my body?" In the Ritualistic or Sacramentarian controversy of the present day very little appeal is made to the writings of Paul; the proof texts cited are mainly from the Gospels. State Churchman quotes the New Testament in support of his views he commonly cites the parables of the Tares and the Draw-net; and Nonconformists reply to him with the words of Christ, "My kingdom is not of this world,' &c. And similarly in other cases that might be mentioned. Let it not be supposed that I do not lament, equally with the ministerial brother on whose paper I am commenting, the sad divisions of Christendom. I simply wish, in a friendly manner, to suggest the question whether it is in reality to dogmas found or supposed to be found in the writings of Paul that these divisions are for the most part due. My own impression is that this notion is an

erroneous one.

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One more point, and that, I take it, of some serious practical importance both to us and to our congregations. Mr. Cox bids us "mark with what comparative infrequency Christ speaks of the death, the sacrifice, by which He took away the sin of the world; how little there is of dogma on His lips; how little of judgment, of terror, although," he says, "these topics are the very staple of our modern pulpits.' Is it true that in the recorded sayings of Christ there is but infrequent reference to His death and sacrifice? This may be doubted in presence of the following passages, only

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one of which we quote at length on account of space; but the reader may refer to the rest for himself. Matt. xx. 28,"Even as the Son of Man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give His life a ransom for many." See also, Matt. xxvi. 28; John iii. 14, 15; vi. 51; x. 11, 15; xii. 24, 32; Mark x. 32-34; Luke xxiv. 26, 46.

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But still, though we should grant that the clear references to our Lord's sacrificial death are not numerous, is not a reason for this to be readily seen in the circumstances of the case? The sacrifice was not yet consummated; the offering was not yet presented. When our Saviour did predict His approaching sufferings the disciples seemed unable to comprehend Him. This was one of the things they could not bear then (John xvi. 12); hence it was reserved for the Holy Spirit to set forth the truth to them more fully after His decease. But it does not follow that because Christ in His earthly lifetime said little concerning His great expiatory sacrifice we are to observe the same comparative silence now. Rather are we to imitate the example of the apostles with whom Christ's redeeming love was the grand motive power by which they sought to stir up their Christian brethren to every good word and work. To vapid, commonplace declamation concerning the cross of Christ such as is sometimes heard, I have as great an objection as our friend; but sure I am that there is no theme, when properly presented, so fitted either to warm the hearts of Christians or to excite them to purity and nobleness of life as the offering of Jesus on the altar of Calvary for the sins of the world.

But is it so, that from the lips of Christ, as He is presented in the Gospels, we have little of judgment and of terror? Even in the Sermon on the Mount what mean those passages Matt. v. 22, 29, 30; vii. 13, 19? But look specially at the closing sentences. The peroration of no modern discourse, I think, has been much fuller of solemn warning than the passage beginning with the words, "Not every one that saith unto me Lord, Lord," and ending with the description of the fate of the foolish builder. Is there nothing of terror in such words as are found in Matt. x. 15, 28, “It shall be more

tolerable for the land of Sodom and Gomorrha in the day of judgment, than for that city?" "Fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul: but rather fear him who is able to destroy both soul and body in hell." The passage ending in Matt. xii. 45 is fitted to suggest very serious thoughts; and in the parables of the Tares, the Draw-net, the Wedding-garment, and the Wicked Husbandman, the closing sentences strike me as somewhat fearful. Who can read the parable of the Ten Virgins, that of the Talents, and indeed any part of the twenty-fifth chapter of the Gospel of Matthew, without great 'searchings of heart?" The parable of the Rich Man and Lazarus appears to me rather alarming. Nor could He have been a very mild preacher on occasions when He knew that severity was the truest kindness, who uttered the words, "Ye serpents, ye generation of vipers, how can ye escape the damnation of hell [literally, the judgment of Gehenna]?" Indeed the entire chapter in which those words occur (Matt. xxiii.) is most remarkable for withering rebuke and terrible denunciation.

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I may be singular in my views, but so far from thinking that there is too much of the element of terror in modern preaching, it has sometimes appeared to me that we have been going of late into the other extreme. We have been getting weakly sentimental in our theology, more so than the hard facts of the universe warrant. Not that there is any need to revive the coarse, Dantesque pictures of hell common in former times; but our plea. sure-loving, luxurious age, requires to be shewn, in serious earnest tones, what will certainly be the end of a life of sensuality and selfishness, namely, "everlasting destruction from the presence of the Lord, and from the glory of His power."

My purpose will not, I hope, be mis-apprehended; nor my spirit misjudged. If this discussion should lead our readers to study more closely the doctrines and precepts of Christ, both those contained in the Gospels and those embodied in the Apostolic Epistles, neither Mr. Cox nor myself will have written in vain.



MAN stands apart from, and above all, the mere scenery of the world. One man is of more value than many mountains. One thought may outweigh in worth many beautiful lakes. Mind infinitely transcends matter in importance. The noblest interests of the world gather about man, and not about the mere scenery of nature. Nature and all her riches was made for nian, and not man for nature. And

when we have beheld and admired all the rich and beautiful scenery which the Lake District can unfold to us, we turn with a greater zest and with a more earnest enthusiasm to the beautiful and noble spirits which have made this locality their home.


The poets you have in connection with the lakes are Wordsworth, Coleridge, Southey, John Wilson, Mrs. Hemans, and Hartley Coleridge. divinity and general literature you have the names of Bishop Watson, Dr. Arnold, Thomas De Quincey, Miss Martineau, and Sir John Richardson, the eminent arctic traveller, author of "The Polar Regions," and other valuable works.

All these are names of some note and eminence in the literary world. They have given a character and an additional charm to this region.

Mrs. Hemans the poet lived for a year at a cottage called "Dove Nest," not far from Ambleside, on the banks of Windermere. She was so enraptured with the place, that in one of her letters she speaks of it in the following words: "I am so delighted with this spot that I scarcely know how I shall leave it. The situation is one of the deepest retirement; but the bright lake before me, with all its fairy barks and sails, glancing like things of life over its blue water, prevents the solitude from being overshadowed by anything like sadness."

Miss Harriet Martineau, an authoress of considerable renown, lives at a charming spot called the Knoll. You pass it in going from Ambleside to Rydal, but it is hidden from view by a Wesleyan chapel, which stands close upon her premises. You get a full view of her residence as you pass along the path under Loughrigg Fell.

Her house is covered with ivy, and when the sun shines warmly she has large blinds on the outside of her windows. She is now an invalid and unable to leave her room. She is a woman of strong masculine mind. Some of her works are of great historical interest. Her history of the Thirty Years' Peace takes its place as a standard work on the history of our country. She is the sister of James Martineau, the eminent Unitarian preacher and writer.


Dr. Arnold, the well-known master of Rugby school, lived in the lake district at intervals during his latter days. Fox Howe is one of the most delightful spots in the whole neighbourhood. His house is built of the native mountain stone, and much of it now is covered with ivy. Here Dr. Arnold spent his vacations, and found recreation in the company of his wife and children. Wordsworth's friendship was to him a source of rich enjoyment. He was never tired of looking upon the surrounding hills. They gave a kind of rapture to his mind. Arnold was one of the extraordinary men of his age. He was a man of broad intellect, of deep research, and of cultivated taste. His inward life was expansive and jubilant. He loved work and liked play. He was a man in understanding, but a child in gentleness and love. He was firm without moroseness, and tender without weakness. He could discuss the affairs of the nation with great dignity and intelligence, and then lay down his pen to have a game or a walk with his children. Dr. Arnold has left his mark upon the age; his influence on the present generation has been both great and good. The secret of his strong and fresh life was union to Christ. His religion clung to a living Saviour. All other objects paled in the presence of the Son of God. This inward faith in a glorified Redeemer gave him vigour in life and victory in death. Some of his pupils have risen to positions of commanding influence in the country, among whom none occupies a higher place in the affections of intelligent men than his biographer, the learned, the accom

plished, the benevolent, and the truly catholic minded Dr. Stanley, the present Dean of Westminster.

We have already mentioned the name of Professor Wilson. He was educated first at Glasgow, then at Oxford. His genius first blossomed forth in the pages of Blackwood's Magazine. He was a poet, a critic, and a philosopher. When he first settled in the lake district he was the life of the boating parties which used to meet on Windermere. But in consequence of family misfortunes he was obliged to give up his beautiful residence at Elleray. He retired to Edinburgh, where he obtained the Chair of Moral Philosophy. He was one of the most remarkable men of his day. He was tall, and strong in body. His head was large and shaggy, like the head of a lion. His walking powers were somewhat wonderful. His manners were open and affectionate. He kindled enthusiasm wherever he went. He was held in high esteem and respect by all his students. He died in 1854.


Thomas De Quincey, known by his Confessions of an Opium Eater, came to the lake district in 1808. He was educated at Oxford. While a student there he came into contact with the writings of Wordsworth and Coleridge. The poetry of these young men seized on his imagination, and carried him away with intellectual delight. went all the way from Oxford to Grasmere to see Wordsworth, but when he got as far as Hammer Scar, from which he could see Wordsworth's cottage, his heart failed him, and he returned to Oxford without seeing the poet. Some years afterwards De Quincey came and took up his residence in the very cottage he had looked upon with such mingled feelings from Hammer Scar. Here he lived for several years among his books. He was a great student, and read works in several languages. I was told that he lived in this pretty cottage till the rats eat through the walls and devoured his books. Afterwards he removed to Nab Cottage, and married the daughter of the proprietor, when he managed to make a more respectable appearance in the world. De Quincey was a child of genius. He was often eccentric in his manners and erratic in his movements. He once made a friendly call

on Professor Wilson, and stayed a year. De Quincey differed from most of his literary friends in this respectthat while they embodied their choicest thoughts in poetry, his congenial element was prose. His works consist of descriptions of persons and scenery, sketches of character, and criticisms of literature. The English language

becomes a noble instrument in his hands, and his works contain some of the finest specimens of English writing.

Hartley Coleridge is a name thoroughly identified with the lake district. He went to reside there when quite a child. He was the eldest son of Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and was born at Nether Stowey, in Somersetshire in 1796. He removed with his parents to Greta Hall, Keswick, in the year 1800; and when his father left Keswick he was confided to the care of a Mr. Jackson. Hartley was educated at Ambleside under the Rev. John Dawes, and resided in lodgings at Clappers Gate, about a mile from Ambleside. He also studied at Oxford. Here he gained a fellowship, but by his indiscretion lost his character. His besetting and overcoming sin was drink. He had a richly furnished mind, and a remarkably correct literary taste, but like his father he lacked strength of will. His life was embittered by failures. Finally he settled down at Nab Cottage, at the foot of Nab Scar, where De Quincey had formerly resided. Here he spent his time taking long walks, admiring the beauty of the lakes and fells, writing exquisite poetry, and attending fashionable dinner parties. No circle was considered complete without Hartley Coleridge; but these parties were often a snare to him. They furnished the occasions for the gratification of his conquering passion. The splendour of his wit was eclipsed and subdued by That brilliant the sparkling wine.

spirit which had been the life of the company in the evening was often filled with bitter remorse in the morning. Being unable, through the inconstancy of his mind, to provide for himself, his friends paid a person of the name of Richardson £50 per year to take charge of him. All who knew him bear testimony to the gentleness of his manners, the loveliness of his disposition, the fulness of his intelligence; and now, with a smile and a

tear, the cottagers especially remember and speak of the virtues and failings of Hartley Coleridge.

But after all, the three great names of the lake district-names associated with the most enchanting scenery, are Wordsworth, Coleridge, and Southey. These men have left the impress of their names and genius on the age in which they lived. They were all men of great intellectual powers. They were associated in literary productions in early life. They all suffered obloquy and reproach. They all lived to triumph over their foes, and their names have been gathering additional brightness, and will be honoured as long as English literature shall exist.

William Wordsworth was a native of Cumberland. He was born at Cockermouth, April 7, 1770. This, therefore, is the centenary year of his birth. His father occupied a respectable position in the county. William was sent to school at Hawkshead, a village in the lake district. Here his young spirit revelled in the glorious scenery that surrounded him. His physical nature was strong, and his animal spirits vigorous and fervent. Here he caught that poetic inspiration which followed him all through life. His soul was the seat of an expanding passion which found its gratification in the beauties and sublimities of nature. As a boy he loved to climb the rugged crags-skate over the frozen lakeand gaze upon the stars as they shone out in solemn silence over the mountain heights. From Hawkshead he went to Cambridge, but did not distinguish himself in the special studies of the university. His soul preferred poetry to mathematics. During one of his vacations he visited France, Switzerland, Italy; and on his return published poetical descriptions of his travels. On leaving Cambridge, he, in company with his sister, removed into Somersetshire, where they became acquainted with Coleridge and Southey. While here, Wordsworth and Coleridge published a joint poetical production, entitled, "Lyrical Ballads."

In 1802 Wordsworth left Somersetshire, and took up his abode at Grasmere. I have already spoken of his sweet and charming cottage. Even now it wears a Wordsworthian appearance. Modesty and beauty are the ideas that strike you as you look upon it. To this dear

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"She was a phantom of delight
When first she gleamed upon my sight;
A lovely apparition, sent

To be a moment's ornament;

Her eyes are stars of twilight fair;
Like twilight's, too, her dusky hair;
But all things else about her drawn
From May-time and the cheerful dawn;
A dancing shape, an image gay,
To haunt, to startle, and waylay.
I saw her upon nearer view,
A spirit, yet a woman too!

Her household motions light and free,
And steps of virgin liberty;

A countenance in which did meet
Sweet records, promises as sweet;
A creature not too bright or good
For human nature's daily food;
For transient sorrows, simple wiles,
Praise, blame, love, kisses, tears, and smiles.
And now I see with eyes serene
The very pulse of the machine;

A being breathing thoughtful breath,
A traveller betwixt life and death;
The reason firm, the temperate will;
Endurance, foresight, strength, and skill;
A perfect woman, nobly planned,
To warn, to comfort, and command;
And yet a spirit still, and bright
With something of an angel light."

In 1808 Wordsworth removed from his quiet and modest cottage to a larger house called Allan Bank. While here, Coleridge became a resident in his house. About this time he lost two of his children. In 1813 he took up his abode at Rydal Mount, where he spent the remainder of his life. His devoted sister dedicated all the powers of her active life to the comfort and pros perity of her brother. She was his constant companion in his rambles among the mountains and lakes of his own native county. She called forth some of the tenderer strains of his poetry. She softened the natural severity of his temperament. She was his guardian angel, who never grew weary of attentions inspired by love and admiration. Wordsworth may be regarded as the great poet of nature. He was not so much drawn to books as to the ever varying moods of natural scenery. His sound and healthful mind recoiled from everything affected and artificial in life and literature. Simplicity, reality, beauty, sublimity, were the threads with which he wove his noble and enduring poetical garments. He found more to

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