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more than a £1,000. If all the churches would do the same, the Fund would be £10,000 instead of £5,000. This may not be possible; but it will be possible for every church to use its best efforts to raise its quota, or such portion of its quota as may be within its power to raise. In every case an average of twopence a week from each member of the church from January to June inclusive will yield the full amount required.

The Executive Committee have cheerfully given their attention to the discharge of their pleasant and agreeable duty; and with a hope that refuses to die they look for the co-operaof ministers, occasional preachers, deacons, Sunday school teachers, and influential laymen to make this movement a brilliant and distinguished success. It is respectfully but earnestly recommended:

1. That collections be made for the Fund in all our chapels and preaching places, at least as early as the opening of the new year, 1871.

2. That subscriptions be obtained by a thorough and vigorous canvass of each congregation.

3. That collectors be appointed who will be willing, where it is necessary, to seek and receive contributions of twopence a week until next June.

4. That liberal New Year's Thankofferings for the Fund be kindly solicited by ministers from the pulpit and by collectors.

5. That the Penny Subscription from the Sunday schools be asked for as a New Year's Gift, and collected on the first or second Sabbath of January.

6. That if the visit of a deputation be necessary or desirable, a request for such visit be communicated to the Secretary without delay.

The immediate and careful attention of the churches is requested to these recommendations. That which stands fifth will be understood when it is remembered that at Leicester it was unanimously resolved "that the Sunday scholars of the denomination be invited to subscribe one penny each to the Centenary Fund." The Executive Committee suggest to the superintendents of our Sunday schools that they may perhaps most easily give effect to this resolution by asking from every scholar the subscription of at least one penny, as a New Year's Gift, for this Fund; and the Committee advise that

on the first or second Sabbath in January next the subscription be collected. It is hoped that every means will be taken to explain and commend the proposal so as to secure, on the part of the teachers, prompt and willing co-operation; and on the part of the scholars a cheerful and general response. Where there are branch schools, it will be well to interest them also in this movement.

The appropriateness of the suggestion of the penny subscription from the Sunday schools of the Connexion cannot for a moment be doubted. The boys and girls of 1870 have even greater reason to rejoice than the men and women. Sunday schools were unknown a hundred years ago. They were founded in 1781 and afterwards by the same influences which led to the formation of this denomination in 1770. It is a great privilege to our children and young people to see this Centenary Year. It is not likely that any one of them will see another. But if they live to riper years, and become at length old and grey-headed, it will be a great pleasure to them as they look back to remember that their young hearts shared in the joy of this double jubilee; that their pence were numbered in the £5,000 of the Centenary Fund; that their hands did something, however little, to rear this memorial in grateful remembrance of the goodness of God upon the denomination for a hundred years.

The carrying out of all the recommendations of the Committee is earnestly urged upon the churches. There is no better way of celebrating the memory of the fathers than by seeking to be filled with their zealous spirit, and by emulating their noble and unselfish deeds. There is no better memorial possible in honour of the past than undertaking in the present Christian work from which the fathers have been called away, and seeking to facilitate that work for all time to come. This is exactly the intention and purpose of the Centenary Fund. The maintenance of the preaching of the Gospel among large and neglected populations, the rendering of help in rearing or enlarging houses of prayer when churches are gathered;-this is precisely what is to be done with the £5,000. What more appropriate object could be selected upon which to

unite special effort in this memorable Centenary Year?

The task is begun. It is half-finished. The Fund is half-raised. Shall it remain so, a memorial for ever of languor, of indifference, of divided counsels, of broken purpose, of half-heartedness in the work of the Lord? Every true soul among us resents the thought; every voice answers with an emphatic and indignant, No. The Fund must be raised entirely, wholly, every shil

ling of it, without delay.
of the Past demands it.
the Present demands it.

The memory

The need of The prospect

of the Future demands it. Our selfrespect demands it. Our public credit as a family of churches demands it. The progress of the Lord's kingdom in our midst demands it. It cannot be but that it shall be done. May the Lord give us grace each to do his part. THOMAS GOADBY.

Derby, Nov. 17, 1870.

No. VII.-Christmas Day.

CHRISTMAS DAY in London is, for
those who know the great metropolis,
a varied and profound study. Nearly
three millions of people, old and young,
rich and poor, vile and virtuous, happy
and unhappy, living and dying, must
form a panorama of a wonderful
character. Every man in London does
what is right in his own eyes. He
has no fear of the master, Mrs. Grundy,
or the parish beadle. What are they
to him? He means to be jolly, to
paddle his own canoe, to enjoy life,
and all that sort of thing, and there-
fore he will not be a slave to any one.
Not he. Is he not a Londoner?


Christmas Day in London. let us see what it is. For days the shops have been gay, very gay. Holly, red berries, paper flowers, large coloured pictures, ornamental writing, and a vast supply of cake, fruit, beef, turkeys, geese, sausages, and liquors, have filled them from floor to ceiling. These immense stores have been sold, sent home, cooked, arranged, served up, and prepared for immediate consumption. The feast is ready; the guests are here; festivity is in full swing; hurrah! it is Christmas Day in London.

Is it? What is our Christmas Day, I wonder? How many people can tell what it is in this Babylon? Not one in a thousand. Many of the secrets of metropolitan life have never been unfolded, and never will, but what I do know may be told. So here it is, good reader.

Let us promenade the West End. Many of the shops are open, but they

have a dilapidated look. Much of the stock is gone, the ornaments are broken, the placards soiled, and all the windows seem inclined to wink three times and then shut up. And at 10.30 they do shut up; for see the crowds of well-dressed people-notably the High Church ladies are going to St. Margaret's and St. Albans. Many are hastening to the Temple to hear the fine singing; to the Roman Catholic chapels for the same; and not a few to listen to the Rev. Dr. Cumming discourse of falling stars, earthquakes, and Papists whose fate he will foretell in a musical whisper so soft and low that it can only be heard by those who are familiar with the dulcet tones in which he delights to prophesy things which do not come to pass. Beggars from Westminster, from Whitechapel, and St. Giles's swarm everywhere, and many a shining shilling do they get from the "good ladies and gentlemen" who are going to church, and merrily will these same beggars sing and drink to-day and tomorrow too. But enough of these scenes-let us move on.

We are in a hospital-a fever hospital. Every patient here is "deadly ill." What rolling eyes! What pale faces! What raving delirium! Can you say here-"A Merry Christmas?" It would be a mockery. So deadly is this place that scores of doctors, students, nurses, and missionaries have lost their lives in ministering to these stricken ones. Honour to their names. Blessing on their deeds of heroism and faith. And the patients: what a med

ley of face and character they present. The good city missionary who now visits them says:

"I have had, as usual, all classes under my visitation; some in middling positions down to costermongers and tramps, most of whom were ill with relapsing fever-as it seems a fever born of famine, insufficient clothing, and immorality. On this account, probably, I have had a great many who could not read, and who were remarkably ignorant of the first rudiments of Scriptural knowledge. The answers they have given to the simplest questions would scarcely be believed by those who are ignorant of our work. I have had those of all creeds, and no creeds, under visitation, Jews, Mormonites, Romanists, and Infidels, with many, too, of the coloured races. I expect that the difference between my work and that of most of my brethren consists mainly in this, that whilst many of those under my visitation would close their doors in the missionary's face at their own homes, when here, with all the will, they are unable to do this, so that I come face to face with them all. No wonder, therefore, that I meet with many a rude rebuff, and that other devices are had recourse to to prevent my visiting them or speaking to them. Three poor Romanist women pulled their sheets over their faces, and tucked the sheets round them as the nurses do round the dead, and feigned that they were dead that I might pass them by. Some others swear, call me a hypocrite, a heretic, and a proselytiser. But most of them avoid me who wish to do so, by simply closing their eyes, some of whom I sometimes speak to of its being high time to awake out of sleep."

He also says:

"I hold stated meetings in the week in the convalescent wards, and always throughout the year two on Sundays, sometimes three. I deem these to be amongst the most profitable parts of my work. Here the patients, though they may avoid me on their beds in the wards, are all present, and it is but rarely that I have the slightest opposition. Now and then, but very rarely, a bigoted Romanist will say, 'I am not of your religion,' and will walk away to the other end of the ward, and perhaps infect another by his example. But as a rule they all stay, and sometimes come back and sit down with the rest. Here it is, whilst the heart is softened by affliction, I strive to drop in the good seed; and many a Romanist has thanked me for the good word that I hope the Spirit has prompted and blessed.

"One Sunday morning I found the men rather restless, and at the close one

of them bluntly informed me of the cause: 'Master, we have been waiting for our beer.' To which another retorted, 'Don't mind him, Sir; he cares more about his body than he does about his soul.' The nurse, I found, had been rather late in drawing them their beer that morning, which they should have had before the meeting commenced. These interruptions, however, have been but rare."

Let us away once more—this time to a Boys' Refuge. Here is an old coach factory transformed into a Home for Destitute Boys. Above a hundred

of them are going to have dinner. Look round you. All these paper flowers, garlands, and mottoes are the work of these boys, who, a short time ago, were wandering about London without a home, a bed, a crust, or a friend. To-day they dine on roast beef and plum pudding. During the interval between dinner and tea they will sing, read, sleep, romp, and talk; after tea and cake, they will crack nuts, eat apples, tell stories, have games, and then after prayer they will file up stairs into a large room containing above a hundred beds, and so go to sleep. A merry Christinas to you, my lads, and many of them.

Move on, good reader, once more. We have much to see. We are in Golden Lane. It is a long, dirty, crowded, infamous place-one of the very worst in all London. It swarms with lodging houses and public houses. Here are scores of thieves, drunkards, costermongers, tramps, swearers, and criminal women. Nearly everybody is either drunk or going to be. Men and women pass us reeking with gin. Big lads roll about tipsy amid the laughter of all around. A sad place this, truly. But not, good reader, without light and hope. Mr. W. J. Orsman labours here, and if you will read his annual report, entitled "After Office Hours," you will see how much good a voluntary labourer can do. Some of his facts are full of interest, not a few of them unique. Read this about his ragged scholars :

"Of course many of the answers to the Bible questions are wide of the mark, and sometimes provoke a smile. After reading about the Pearl of great price,' one of the boys brought in a large pearl-oyster shell to the teacher, saying that it was the greatest pearl he could find.


Another child, replying to the question, 'What is a prophet?' said, with a

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knowing look, 'Why, its wot yer gets over when yer sells anythink.' To the query, Why did Jairus rejoice when his daughter was raised from the dead?' one little fellow, scratching his head, replied, ''Cos it didn't cost him nothink for the funeral.' It is evident that these children of the streets look at everything from the £ s. d. point of view."

Speaking of conversions, we have the following:

"Mrs. A. was standing in White-cross Street, when a boy offered her a tract. 'I don't want no track, boy. I'm track enough myself,' she said; but she took it and asked a friend to read it to her. The subject was, 'No drunkard shall inherit the kingdom of God.' 'O lor, then it's all up with my poor soul!' From that time she commenced to attend the mission, and has led many others there also. B., a frequenter of low theatres and the son of Roman Catholic parents, was the first to introduce the Bible at home, where it is now daily read. The mother and son are consistent Christians. C., instead of going to the theatre one night, came to the mission, and the Word of God went straight to his conscience, and he went home to pray. His brother was in bed and shouted out, What are you grunting there for? Get in bed; don't be a fool about religion. What do you understand about it? You can't read.' He wrestled in agonising prayer, and peace came with the dawn of day, and he now

'Can read his title clear

To mansions in the skies.' Mrs. D. was awakened by a dream repeated three times, in which the Good Shepherd appeared, and led her to the mission. As she entered we were singing the hymn

'I have a Friend, a precious Friend.' The Saviour said to her, 'I am that Friend,' and she awoke. She came to the service that day for the first time, and singularly enough, as she entered, we were singing the words quoted above. This was to her an omen of good. She is now a follower of Christ. A youth showed us the other day, with tears in his eyes, the spot where Agin that post, sir, at the corner of the court, I gave my heart to Jesus. I couldn't help praying in the street, sir, my heart wor so full. There wasn't nobody-much about, sir, and it wouldn't 'ave mattered if there was." Another youth, with terrible antecedents, said of the teacher of the Bible class, which he was induced to attend, 'It wor 'er tears that got over me, and made me think about the Lord Jesus.''

One more extract. It is Mr. Ors

man's account of a happy Christmas Day :


"320 men, women, and children, were invited to a good dinner, tea, &c., in the mission hall. In issuing the invitations, care was taken to select the most deserving One poor man went into a neighbour's shop to buy two 'faggots'-a mystical savoury meal, made of the contents of a pig's stomach-with his last twopence, for his family's dinner on Christmas Day. He was known to be a deserving man-a painter out of work-so the shop-keeper gave him tickets for our dinner. When he entered the building, he saw the banner, 'Hitherto hath the Lord helped us.' With his eyes full of tears, he turned to his wife and said, 'Aye, Polly, an' that's true, if it never wor before.' At tea-time our number was augmented by seventy of the fusee boys who throng round the Post Office, Exchange, and Mansion House. After tea we had singing, religious addresses, and a dissolving-view lecture on the Life of Jesus. We ask for the means to give a similar dinner this year."


Stay, just one more fact. Orsman has just issued the Golden Lane Magazine, concerning which he tells this little story :-"One of our school-boys hearing of the new maga. zine, asked the teacher if it was " one of them there things wot blows people up?" "

Success to our dear brother. He deserves our love and prayers; and if he is sometimes a little odd in his ways, we hope nobody will blow him up.

There is much feasting in London on Christmas Day, and also much fasting. Let us enter a few houses, and see poor-life as it is.

We are in St. Giles's, and we will ascend to an attic in Dudley Street. Here is a widow left with eight children. How is she to feast? Come into St. Ann's Court. Here is a young wife ill of fever; her child died of fever a few days ago; and her husband is in prison. How is she to feast? Good reader, remember the poor.

Here I might lay down my pen, but before doing so I wish to say that some readers may have thought I have painted London in too gloomy colours. The worst cannot be told. So far from saying too much, I have said too little. Witness the solemn words of Lord Shaftesbury at Ryde, on Sept. 7:

"There were parts of London inhabited by a set of beings, many of whom, except some of the men, he said it with all

humility, seldom or never emerged beyond the mouth of the crowded alleys in which they lived. Did they think if some troublesome times arose-and they might expect them now more than ever-and the police and military were to be called to one end of the town, leaving the other end in full possession of a mass of lawless people, that these men would not come forth by thousands and tens of thousands from their dens of vice and sin? Depend upon

it, unless the people were brought under the influence of the Gospel, London would some day present such a spectacle of conflagration, plunder, and bloodshed, as would astonish the world."

Trusting that Christian men will ponder these words, good reader, farewell, for here I finish my Revelations of London Life.


A BILL has recently been passed by the
Legislature of this country having for
its avowed object the education of
every child in the kingdom. With that
purpose we ardently sympathize; and
whatever exception we take to the
Government measure has reference, not
to the end desired, but to the machinery
by which it is sought to be reached.
In this paper I propose to state briefly
what the machinery adopted by Parlia-
ment is, and then to point out what
appears to me to be the duty and the
wisest policy of Nonconformists in
reference to this question as matters
now stand.

Hitherto the education of the people has been carried on mainly by the efforts of religious denominations, supplemented, however, by Government grants. The denominations which have been most zealous in this work are the Episcopalians, the Roman Catholics, and the Wesleyans; other denominations, for the most part, having, for various reasons, stood aloof. Government grants have been made, both towards the erection and fitting up of school-buildings, and also towards the current expenditure of the schools.

Building grants have been made subject to the following conditions:-(1.) "That there was a sufficient population of the labouring class requiring a school in the vicinity. (2.) That the religious denomination of the new school was suitable to the families relied upon for supplying scholars. (3.) That the school was likely to be maintained in efficiency, and (4) That the buildings, at the time of application, were not begun, nor contracted for; and that no trust deed had been executed."

The grants made for school buildings could not exceed either of the following

limits:-(1). The total amount voluntarily contributed in the parish where the school was situated, or within a radius of four miles from the school. (2.) 2s. 6d. per square foot of internal area, in new school-rooms and classrooms.-(3.) £65 for each teacher's residence. To secure the grant, moreover, it was necessary "that the site, plans, estimates, specifications, titles, and trust deed, should have been previously approved by the Committee of Council on Education."

Annual grants to the extent of onethird of the total income of the school were made on condition-(1.) That the school belonged to some recognized religious denomination, or was one in which the Scriptures were read daily from the authorised version—and, (2.) That the school was under Government inspection.

Such is the system of national education which has been in operation hitherto. That system, with certain modifications, the Bill of last session maintains.

The modifications referred to are as follow:-(1.) "No grant is to be made in aid of building, enlarging, improving, or fitting up any elementary school, except in pursuance of a memorial duly signed, and sent to the Education Department, on or before the 31st of December of the present year. (2.) After the 31st of March, 1871, no grant is to be made to any school in respect of any instruction given in religious subjects. (3.) Henceforth it will be no part of the duty of any of Her Majesty's inspectors to examine any child in religious subjects, or to make any inquiry respecting any religious instruction which may be given in a school.-(4.) Where any religious

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