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The Ideal Chapel.
81 The vestries and class rooms will The question of the size of a chapel also serve, as at present, as committee enters more closely into that of effirooms for the management of the ciency than is at first apparent. If the smaller organizations of the church, sole object of building a chapel was and also as class rooms for technical the production of a large preaching instruction.
place, there need not be any limit Social meetings of the congregation, within that imposed by the want of while very often abused, are frequently power in being heard. But we have of use in promoting iutercourse between endeavoured to show that preaching the members, and, with that inter- is only a part of the work of the course, a more genial feeling and a church. To do that work fully and more cordial appreciation. Domestic well
needs a hearty co operation conveniences for this and other pur- between minister and people, and a poses must not be omitted.
cordial sympathy with each other. If it is an essential part of the There is no need for gossiping, but church's work to provide for the men- there is need that each member should tal and spiritual development of the feel that the services of every other people, it is no less a duty to see that member is at his command according none of the members suffer from abso- to their special ability, or to the neceslute physical want. In addition to sities of the case. If the chapel is occasional relief in money, the church very large, the congregation do not would do well to provide almshouses come to know each other, neither can for such of its members as are incapaci- the minister be friend as well as tated by infirmity or advanced age. preacher to his congregation. We Certain stringent rules would have to should feel inclined to suggest 800 be introduced to prevent partiality on adults as the average limit to the the part of the managers, hypocrisy on accommodation of the ideal chapel; the part of the recipients, and other very frequently it need not rise above like evils. But with care and with 500 or 600. Two smaller churches, if definite regulations these evils may be not too small, will yield a greater haravoided.
vest of individual effort than one large Besides thus relieving its own mem- one. There need be no bickering and bers, the church would continue to jealousy, as is too often the case; exercise its present charitable function probably there would be none if more of relieving the deserving poor uncon- active work was done, and if there was nected with the church. Bread, meat, more intercommunion between the and coal tickets, and a soup kitchen churches.
some of the obvious means of The question of cost is one of great effecting this relief. The co-operation difficulty in its practical application, pointed out in the Minute published by though not very difficult with referthe President of the Poor Law Board ence to main principles. Prices vary indicates a way of avoiding the schemes greatly between one part of the country of professional paupers.
and another. Materials which may be Village churches would find a very very wisely used in one place should useful and comparatively inexpensive be avoided in another. Two rules, if sphere of usefulness in the mainte- conscientiously adhered to, will help dance of cottage hospitals, care being to settle this question ; they can, howtaken to prevent their becoming occa- ever, only be applied in connection sions for impertinently intruding reli- with what will be advanced with refergious views. Town churches would ence to design. These are, (1.) All better effect the same object by sub- materials should be the best of their scribing to the established infirmaries kind; the kind of material should only and hospitals, and so securing the right be considered. (2.) All expensive and of recommending patients
purely decorative ornament should be Accommodation for an active chapel avoided unless required by the exigenkeeper and his wife, and a house for cies of design. Some have said, “ Will the ministerial supervisor of all these you be less lavish and generous in charities, complete the surroundings building to the honour of God, than of the Ideal Chapel. We have now to you are in building your own places of consider the questions of size, cost, business or of pleasure, or even your and style.
own homes ?" We may well reply,
"Are we not altogether too lavish ? Do we not seek a catching and meretricious show at the expense of more substantial work ?" But if it be desirable to make “secular" buildings
showy,” are they not made thus showy to inspire confidence (too often undeserved !) in the owners or in the business for which the place is intended? But it would be grotesquely impious to imagine that "the High and Holy One who inhabits eternity” can gain anything by such advertisements. It is rather the subscribers, the committee, and the architect, who reap the harvest of surprise and admiration.
But the architect, as well as the church, should seek by his work to raise and purify his fellows. Let him therefore exclude all ideas about o noble front" and a “handsome elevation"-phrases which only mean the glorification of those producing it. Without disparaging the beauties of any style of architecture, and whilst admitting the harmony pervading each in its best examples, we say that the question to be asked is not, “Shall the chapel be classic ?"
“Shall it be gothic ?” These concern the pedantry of Dryasdusts. To all interested in chapel building we would suggest that, keeping in view the object of the building and the accommodation to be provided, there are five cardinal virtues in art. (1.) Simplicity; for it should never be forgotten that enrichment is by no means necessary for securing beauty. Chastity is always beautiful; display may be so; gaudiness never is. (2.) Good proportion of parts, and of
the details of each part. (3.) Judicious contrasting of parts. (4.) Grouping and the gradual transition from one part to another. (5.) Centralization, or the predominance of one part so as to afford rest for the eye after its excursion over the various parts. This is the exemplification in man's work of the moral excellence of the inward man, of one who, well informed, well balanced, has one quality which neither dwarfs nor overshadows all others, but lends to all a grace, and gives to all a centre of intellectual gravitation. All questions of design, of spires, turrets, and porticoes, may be determined by these five requisites.
It is but a trite thing to say that difficulties occur and recur in attempting to realize the outward expression of our highest desires. There are also practical difficulties of site, and not less practical difficulties of finance. But if we are desirous of helping our fellow men, let us be content to give up costly shams and pretences in our chapels; let us keep our highest aim steadily in view; let us avoid the narrowuess that refuses the simple, however beautiful, because it is found in connection with forms of worship with which we have but little in common; let us be content to be guided by such help as we believe to be honest, well informed, and inspired with a lofty purpose; and let us be always willing to learn, rejecting the bad, however old, but always ready to welcome anything, however strange and new, which gives us a token that it will do us good.
J. WALLIS CHAPMAN.
THE REV. T. COCKERTON. THE Rev. Thomas Cockerton was born cepted the pastorate of the church at at Soham, Cambs., July 26, 1839. In Castle Donington, where for some two his youth he went to London, where years or more he laboured arduously he obtained a situation. While there and successfully for the Master. He he attended the ministry of Rev. C. H. next went to Daventry with the object Spurgeon, by whose preaching he was of raising a Baptist cause in that town. led to the knowledge of the truth as it He was prosecuting this work with is in Jesus. He afterwards joined the many signs of success when the Lord church then worshipping at New Park called him from his active labours to Street, and eventually entered the endure great bodily suffering, which Pastor's College when that institution finally ended in death. During the was in its infancy, and after the usual last two years of his life slight indicacurriculum he took charge of the church tions of consumption had been obat Thorpe-le-Soken, Essex, where his served ,but it was not till the close of ministry was very fruitful and much the year 1867 that the symptoms beblessed of God. He ministered there came at all alarming. On the last for three or four years, when he ac- Sabbath evening of that year, under
the impression that he should never again speak in public, he preached his last sermon from the text, “ When He hath tried me I shall come forth as gold.” On the 2nd of January, 1868, he ruptured a blood vessel, and from that time he grew much worse, until deatb put a period to his sufferings, which were most intense, on the 4th of June following. He died at Soham, and in the Baptist chapel there his funeral sermon was preached by the Rev. W. J. Inglis, from the text (chosen by deceased) It is finished."
During those long months of pain and weariness he was never heard to murmur, but manifested a quiet humble, patient spirit. After long seasons of great pain he would ask his wife to kneel down and thank the Lord for granting him a little ease. Even in the midst of suffering his joy appeared to amount to rapture; and during the momentary cessations from pain be would request us to sing some of the sweet hymns he loved so well. The writer of this brief memoir was privileged daily to sit beside his dying bed, and on one occasion when reading the fourteenth chapter of John, on reaching the second verse,
Stop! God, who cannot lie, has said that; I, therefore, know it is true.
solation that gives me !" The week before he died he was in great darkness of soul, but the Lord was very merciful, and soon removed the cloud, when all was calin and serene to the last. One standing by him said, you are like a ship with all the sails spread, only waiting for the favourable gale to carry you into port. He replied, “Yes : come, Lord Jesus."
When told by some they thought preaching had injured him, he answered, “I could not be woundel on a more glorious battlefield. The last day he lived, when so weak that he could only utter a few words at a time, his dear wife said, "Is Christ precious now?" He replied, “ Most precious; He is my all.” Again, she asked, "Are you happy in Jesus now ?" He said, " Happy! I'm superlatively happy; for
“The gospel bears my spirit up,
In oaths, and promises, and blood.""
Mr. Cockerton was a warm friend, a cheerful Christian, a faithful pastor, and an ablo minister of the New Testament.
THE RESURRECTION.* It was with unfeigned pleasure we heard will only receive its full fruition when this that Mr. Cox was engaged in the investi. mortal shall have put on immortality. gation of the sacred and critical subject of That empty sepulchre justifies the ways of the Resurrection, and it is with more than God to His Son; the saints ascending to satisfaction that we now introduce his meet their Lord in the air will vindicate valuable expository essays, the result of the whole course of the dealings of the this inquiry, to the attention of the readers Divine Father towards His church. Faith of this Magazine. The theme is con- anchors itself with unshaken security in fessedly one of transcendant interest. Its the manifested "
power of Christ to lay range is most extensive, and its vital asso. down His life, and to take it up again;" ciation with our brightest hopes and and our tenderest sympathies entwine saddest fears makes it one of the most themselves about His promise of a future engaging topics of Christian thought. It exercise of similar power for man. Indeed, embraces the most important supernatural give up the central miracle of the gospel, fact in gospel-history--the resurrection of that Jesus was raised from the dead, and the Lord Jesus Christ; and it stretches be- we part with the clearest prophecy of the yond all ordinary experience to the period Christian's conquest of death; we surren. when death himself shall be destroyed, der an authentic witness to the Divinity of and the kingdom of Christ given up to the our Lord; we lose the crowning enforceFather, that God may be all in all. The ment of Christian precepts and the surest first resurrection, that of Christ, holds in seal of Christian doctrines. Our faith is its firm grasp the key to all the past; the vain. Christianity is a deceptive will-olast, our own, is the burning lamp that the-wisp, and not a ray straight from God. lights all the future. Christianity rests on We are yet in our sins. There is not a the ascension of Christ from the grave of subject more thoroughly woven into the Joseph of Arimathæa, and Christian hope texture of our work and joy, of our hope
* The Resurrection. By Samuel Cox. London: Strahan & Co.
and victory in life and death, than Jesus and the resurrection."
Nor are we without satisfactory teaching on so momentous a matter. The fifteenth chapter of the first epistle to the Corin. thians is a complete manual of the resurrection. It stands amongst the rebukes and personal pleadings of this letter like a gigantic Alp rearing its sovereign head high above the surrounding table-land, or as St. Paul's stands clothed with majesty and beauty amongst the busy scenes and wearing toil of city life. Creed and hymn, history and prophecy, argument and description, rebuke and persuasion, sarcasm and sympathy, meet within the compass of these fifty-eight verses, and contribute to the harmony and power of the whole. There is not another portion of Scripture like it in either of the Testaments. The nearest resemblance to it in character and style is the eleventh of Romans, but the subject in the latter case is not so comprehensive, nor is the treatment so varied and masterly. Plain, unadorned fact breaks forth into the blossom of universal principles of life. Bold, daring, and philosophic reasoning mounts up to lyrical rapture. A rigorous and unbending logic that sweeps everything before it ministers soothing balm for mourning and broken hearts. In his holy eagerness to demonstrate the resurrection of Christ, and to establish the certainty that we shall rise again, the apostle presses into his service all kinds of facts and all forms of speech, so that our faith may be firm and pure for service, and our hearts full of hope and joy when we walk through the valley of the shadow of death.
The exposition of a subject so grave and important, set out in a fragment of Scripture of such unique merit, requires qualifications of no ordinary kind, and we can. not refrain from saying, though this is high praise, that we could scarcely have better help than what is supplied in the volume before us. Not that the readers of this work will in every case accept the author's conclusions, but they will feel themselves enabled to form a clearer and more satisfactory judgment of the points discussed by following the lead of so faithful, reverent, and diligent a student of Holy Scripture. If patience and modesty, thoroughness of research and fulness of information, conscientious fidelity to, and faithful analysis of, the Greek text, manly candour and freedom from the faintest whisper of dogmatism, acute perception and intense love of truth, if these qualities invite trust, then Mr. Cox's book deserves confidence in a very high degree.
Twelve Essays on the fifteenth chapter of St. Paul's first Epistle to the Corinthians, and an Appendix, make up this volume. The latter contains a carefully executed
translation of the original, as edited by Lachmann. The Essays lead off with an exposition of the Apostle's Creed, and then discuss, in five chapters, the historical and moral proofs of the resurrection; and the remaining six are devoted to the examination of the mode of that event.
But our readers will be anxious to know the author's opinions on some of the most debateable portions of this chapter, e.g., the " baptism for the dead," "all made alive in Christ,” the surrender of the kingdom of the Mediator to the Father, and the “spiritual body.” We have only space for the consideration of two of these subjects, and we select one on which we agree with Mr. Cox, and another on which we differ with him. To understand the words of Paul concerning the “ baptism for the dead, ' let us imagine ourselves in Corinth when this letter arrived, and shortly before a baptism takes place. Say, there are seven persons, called disciples, candidates for the ordinance of baptism. A week before the time for its administration two of the seven die. What now is to be done? They have passed away without baptism. Now baptism is most important as a sign of in. corporation with the church of Christ. Every one who believes in Jesus should be baptized, and then united with His church. These two, our brethren now departed, were prepared for baptism, and intended it. But death has suddenly overtaken them, and they cannot carry out their in. tention. Let two others already members of the church be baptized in their names, and so executing the known intentions and desires of the deceased give them a right to be enrolled members of the visible church, Thus the baptism of seven takes place; five for themselves, and in their own names, two for those wbo have already joined the church above. Now it is not improbable that the immature Christians at Corinth fell into such a flattering mistake, and it is certain that an error of the kind existed so early as the second century.
But then a difficulty arises. Why did not Paul condemn this superstition? Surely he would not have spared it if it existed. But has he spared it? Most convincingly has Mr. Cox met this objection, and shown that St. Paul separates himself from those who observed this custom, and tacitly reprehends it. The Greek question, fairly rendered, is not, " What will you do who are baptized for the dead;" but, “ What can those say for them. selves who are in the habit of being baptized for the dead." " Mark,” says our expositor, “ the tone of his argument before and after the twenty-pinth verse, and you will see how completely he identifies himself with his friends at Corinth. If the dead rise not, our preaching is vain, &c. . . . Con. trast this with the tone of verse twenty
The Resurrection-Life in Christ.
85 nine-Else, what shall they do who are how anything else is necessarily included. baptized for the dead? If dead men are Hence the life that shall come by Christ is not raised, why, then, are they baptized the resurrection of the body. The first for the dead? Is not that in a very dif- extends to all. The second shall have ferent tone to the preceding and following equal range. The work of Christ in this verses ? St. Paul no longer speaks of we respect is “co.extensive and co-efficient and you, but of they and them, as though with the work of Adam." If the resurrec. he were speaking of strangers, of men tion is a spiritual one, i.e., a raising to life with whom neither he nor his friends were of what is dead in living men, we admit in perfect sympathy. . Our conclusion this interpretation is unsatisfactory; but of the whole matter, then, although we there does not appear one jot or tittle of must hold it only as ours, and not as the evidence in favour of such a construction final authoritative conclusion, must be : being put upon the words. The theory then, That the custom of baptizing the living sound or unsound, is perfectly gratuitous. for the dead did obtain in some sections of (2.) But we are reminded that being the early church: and that the apostle accepted “it enables us to read St. Paul's used this custom for a logical purpose, parallel in Romaps v. 12-19) between although he disapproved of it, and quietly Adam and Christ in its plainest and most intimated his disapproval."
obvious sense.” If this be so it will be an Now it remains for us to state briefly advantage; and though the theory may be some of the grounds on which we dissent shut out from the Corinthians, it may find from the theory of human nature applied acceptance in the Romans. Is it so? in interpreting the words, “As in Adam This parallel is a large subject, and would all die, even so in Christ sball all be made warrant a discussion several pages long, alive." That theory is briefly expressed in but we can only give a few lines to it. the words of Robertson, "There are in all Paul puts in contrast Adam and Christ. of us two natures, that of the animal, and But in what respects ? (a) Not in the that of the Spirit, an Adam and a Christ.” fullest sense, because he has stated limita. Mr. Cox says, more at length, “ If in us, tions. The parallel, therefore, is not com. and in all men, there are two natures, two plete, and ought not to be carried out in laws, two men at strife,—the one leading every possible direction : for (b) the degree to evil, the other protesting against evil of evil in the one case and of good in the and inciting to good, we derive the former other is expressly excluded by the asserfrom Adam, the latter from Christ. This tion that the effects of the second Adam's is the benefit all men derive from the re- obedience far exceed those of the first demption of Christ, even before they be. Adam's disobedience. (c) The real anlieve in Him, even though they never be- tithesis seems to be the disobedience and lieve in Him, that they have the Christ' the obedience, the condemnation and the in them, just as the harm they inherit from justification, the death and the free gift; Adam is that they have the Adam' in i.e., the deeds of each of these two leaders them. But for the grace of Christ they and the issues proceeding from them. The would never have had that better self' of consequences of Adam's offence are uniwhich they are conscious-this better self versal. All that are human suffer through is the gift, the free gift of the grace of him. They are subjected to many evils Christ; and by so much as He is greater without their assent. They inherit through than Adam, by so much is the free gift of a long succession from him a bias towards Christ of a more sovereign potency than sin, in many cases of awful strength. the offence of Adam."
They are doomed to physical death. But Now let us ask, (1.) What do we gain does the condemnation in the full sense by this theory? A key to the interpreta- extend to every individual ? Few will say tion of a passage of Scripture? Yes. If, that it does. Infants surely are excluded then, it can be shown that the statement from that, though not from death, nor in question ought to be unlocked with from many other evils traceable to disobe. another key, we may, unless other reasons dience other than their own. Some volun. prevail, cast the first aside. To us it seems tary act is necessary to bring any one that such is the case. The resurrection of under condemnation. Why then should the dead, i.e., not of the dead spiritual na. not some similar act be requisite to bring ture, but of the body, is the subject of this us into the blessing of justification unto chapter. This discourse has no meaning life? We do receive nuch good from if this is not its drift. Hymenæus and Christ without our concurrence. It meets Philetus were saying that the resurrection us at birth. It comes with the children of was already past, and overthrowing the godly parents into the world; and we can faith of some by substituting the spiritual believe that there is blessing amongst us for the physical resurrection. We must not to-day which descended in response to the follow them. The death that came by Adam faith and hope of Adam in the promise of is, in part, bodily death, and so far as this & Redeemer. But is this “justification present passage is concerned we do not see unto life?" Is this indeed " Christ in us"