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the sheaf of first-fruits; (Lev. xxiii. 12.) making altogether 14 bullocks, 7 rams, 50 lambs, and 7 goats.-5. On the day of Pentecost, the same also as for each new moon, (Numb. xxviii. 26-31,) and besides, with the two wave loaves, seven lambs, one bullock, two rams, and a goat, together with two other lambs for a sacrifice of peace offering; (Lev. xxiii. 18, 19;) making altogether 3 bullocks, 3 rams, 16 lambs, and 2 goats.-6. On the feast of trumpets, one bullock, one ram, seven lambs, and a goat.-7. On the great day of Atonement, the same, (Numb. xxix. 7-11,) and besides a ram and a goat when the High-priest performed his awful duty of entering the Most Holy Place, (Lev. xvi. 5,) making together, 1 bullock, 2 rams, 7 lambs, and 2 goats. -8. On each of the eight days of the feast of the tabernacles a number of different victims, equal altogether to 71 bullocks, 15 rams, 105 lambs, and 8 goats. (Numb. xxix. 12-38.)-Let us now put the whole together, thus :
1. Daily Sacrifices for 365 days,
6. Sacrifices for the feast of trumpets,
B. R. L. G.
7. Sacrifices for the day of Atonement, 1 8. Sacrifices for the feast of tabernacles, 71
114 40 1103' 32
Thus, many were the victims whose blood was shed each year, in the stated services of the sanctuary, for the whole congregation. The goats, in all these cases, were sin offer. ings; and the other animals, except in the one instance noticed in the statement, burnt offerings. The blood of all these victims, however, formed only a small part of the whole quantity that was poured forth in the sacred court, year after year, from the sacrifices that were there presented before the Lord. The largest stream by far flowed from the various victims that were led to the altar as private offerings.
SACRIFICES THAT WERE NOT BLOODY.
Bloodless sacrifices, it has been already stated, consisted in meal, cakes, wine, &c. Of this class were the MEAT OFFERINGS, and the DRINK OFFERINGS that were in many cases required to accompany them. The latter were never presented separately from the first, and in all common cases both were found joined to other sacrifices of the bloody sort. There were, however, some bloodless sacrifices that were offered by themselves without animal victims. We may, for the sake of order, distribute all into three classes, as follows.
1. Prescribed meat offerings accompained with drink offerings. When united in this way, they were always attached to particular bloody sacrifices. In Numb. xv. 1— 12, we have a statement of the different proportions of flour, oil, and wine, that were required to be used in such cases for different victims. It seems, that the animal sacrifices which God designed to be accompanied with such offerings as we are speaking of, were all peace offerings, and all burnt offerings of the flock or herd, whether for individuals or for the whole congregation. (Numb. xv. 3; and chap. xxviii. 29.) Birds were not so accompanied, except in one case where they were substituted for other animals. (Lev. xiv. 31.) Sin offerings and trespass offerings of every kind were not to be attended even with any thing of the sort; unless it be supposed, that in the single case of the leper's purification sacrifice, mentioned in Lev. xiv. 10—20, such an offering, consisting of a tenth-deal of flour with a proportion of oil and wine, was designed for each of the three victims used on the occasion, out of that general meat offering which is there noticed: that the case was thus, we are assured by the Jewish writers; but it seems natural and easy enough to consider all that meat offering as a single one of peculiar character, intended particularly to accompany the burnt offering victim alone.
2. Meat offerings voluntarily added to other sacrifices. The offerings of the first class just considered were made necessary, in the cases that have been mentioned, and were accurately determined as to quantity by the law; but these which we are now to notice, were such as individuals were
led of their own free will to present at the altar, with their bloody offerings, over and above what was absolutely required; or, at least, such as, although they were directed to be presented in certain cases, were nevertheless left to be determined as to their form and their amount by the of ferers themselves. Of this sort are to be reckoned all those that are spoken of in the second chapter of Leviticus. From Leviticus vii. 12, 13, we learn that sacrifices of this sort were to be added to all peace offerings for thanksgiving. No mention is made of wine being joined to them: though no doubt it was often used with victims along with which they were brought to the altar; only, however, as belonging to those other meat offerings that have been already noticed, which might be presented at the same time, and not as having any thing to do directly with these that are now in question. Meat offerings of the first class were all of unbaked flour mingled with oil; but these under consideration might be either thus unbaked or baked in various ways, and sometimes consisted of various fruits of the earth without any preparation A portion of the first-fruits, together with a tenth part of all the increase of the field was to be every year employed in this way. (Deut. xiv. 2229. xxvi. 1-11.)
3. Independent meat offerings. This class comprehends those few bloodless sacrifices that were appointed to be offered, as it were, upon their own account, without being attached to any of the bloody class, or indebted to them for the occasions on which they were to be presented. These were either for the whole congregation, or for particular individuals. Of the first sort were, 1st. The twelve loaves of shew-bread, set forth before the Lord in the Holy Place, 2nd. The sheaf of barley offered on the second day of the Passover. (Lev. xxiii. 10.) 3d. The two loaves of the firstfruits, offered on the day of Pentecost. (Lev. xxiii. 17.) With these last, victims were indeed sacrificed; but they held only a secondary place in the solemnities; while the sheaf in one case, and the loaves in the other, were of chief and independent consequence.-Of the second sort, such as were offered for individuals, were, 1st. The offering of jealousy, of which we have an account in Numb. v. 15, 18, 25. 26, that was to have with it neither oil nor incense. 2d.
The poor man's sin offering, mentioned in Lev. v. 11, that was to be offered in like manner, without oil or incense, when a man was not able to provide for himself even a pair of doves or pigeons. 3d. The priestly meat offering, which Aaron and his sons, it said, were to present in the day of their anointing. (Lev. vi. 20-34.) Jewish tradition tells us that this last was twofold; being required of every priest when he first entered upon his sacred office, and being required besides of the High-priest every day during all the time of his ministry; but this does not clearly appear from the scriptures.
Every meat offering was required to be seasoned with salt, and might not, on any account, have in it a particle of honey, nor yet, in all common cases, a particle of leaven. The two loaves offered on the day of Pentecost, were leavened, and we read that leavened bread was brought also with sacrifices of thanksgiving, together with the unleavened cakes and wafers; (Lev. vii. 13;) but no part of such offerings could be presented upon the altar; the universal statute was, that no leaven, nor any honey, was to be burned in any offering of the Lord made by fire. (Lev. ii. 11.) The shewbread was accompanied with incense without oil; the prescribed meat offering, to which wine was joined, had oil without incense; the poor man's sin offering, the offering of jealousy, and the sheaf of first-fruits, had neither one nor the other; while all the rest were enriched with both.The incense, in every casc, was all burned upon the altar; in the case of the meat offering presented by a priest, and as it seems, on the whole, in the case of all those of the first class, such as were prescribed and accompanied with wine, the whole was in like manner given to the fire; but in other cases, only a part of the flour, or bread and oil, was burned, as a memorial for all, while the remainder was appropriated to the priests, as a gift from the Lord. The wine, when it was used, was solemnly poured out at the bottom of the altar.
In the general class of sacrifices of the bloodless sort, is to be reckoned also, besides those that have been styled meat offerings, the sacred incense that was offered every morning and every evening on the golden altar, and once
in the year presented upon a censer filled with coals, within the Holiest of all.
FIRST-FRUITS, FIRST-BORN, TYTHES, VOW-GIFTS, &c.
Besides those to which the name of sacrifice has been particularly appropriated, such as we have been hitherto considering, there were other sacred offerings appointed in the Jewish system that claim our attention. The most important of them were of four principal kinds.
1. FIRST-FRUITS. The first sheaf of barley, on the second day of the Passover, and the first loaves of Pentecost, were presented to God as offerings for the whole nation. But besides these, offerings of all sorts of first-fruits were required to be made, year after year, by individuals; firstfruits of the harvest and the vintage, from the threshing floor, the wine-press, the oil-press, and the honey-crowded hive, from the first baked bread of the new crop also, and from the fleecy treasures gathered at every time of shearing from the flock. (Ex. xxiii. 19. Numb. xv. 19-21.) These were not presented at the altar, but were assigned by God, to whom they were consecrated, for the use of his ministers, the priests. (Numb. xviii. 11-13.) How much should be given in these cases, the law left each person to decide for himself. The Jewish Doctors of later times, however, gave it as their judgment, that the smallest proportion which a man might conscientiously allow, was a sixtieth part of the whole produce from which it was taken.
In Deut. xviii. 3, we find the following statute: This shall be the priests' due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep:-they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw. The word here translated, offer a sacrifice, has at times a more general meaning, and is used to signify the slaying of animals, for common use, in cases where nothing of a sacred nature was designed. It was understood accordingly; and, as it would seem, correctly understood, that such an extent of meaning belonged to it in this present case; and so it was the practice throughout the nation, as we are informed, on good authority, still to appropriate the parts that have been mentioned, to the priests, whenever, on any occasion, animals were killed at home only for the