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les. (Judg. i. 1, 2. xx. 18, 23, 28. 1 Sam. xxii. -13. xxviii. 6.) We have no account of God ulted in this way in the time of the temple. ave seen already, the High-priest was entrusted most important power as a judge, not only in ters, but in questions also of a merely civil kind. ed, too, a chief rank in the royal court, as a to whom the king was expected to have recourse eat interest of the state.

in 2 Kings xxv. 18, and Jer. xlii. 24, of a Second ell as a chief one. This seems to have been one

assist the chief or High-priest, in the general the Sanctuary, and in cases of unexpected neceshis place, even in the most solemn duties. As he uddenly unfitted for his peculiar work, by sicklement, and yet it was of the most vital import n the great day of Atonement, especially, that d not be omitted, it was certainly altogether have such a substitute, qualified in such emerake upon himself the whole character of High

stead, and so to accomplish the holy services, a in their proper place. The Jewish writers es, make frequent mention of such an assistant te (when necessary) of the High-priest They Sagan.

seen that the whole priesthood was instituted epresent, in shadowy type, the mediatorial cha Redeemer, Jesus Christ. To him the priestly gard from the beginning. It was only in its im, that it had any meaning whatever. Hence, the High-priest in the Jewish economy, Was, ny other single priest, a figure of this Great at was to come. As he was the soul of the hood, and comprehended in himself, in a certam niversal office, (though necessity required & of its manifold duties among many secondary d reserved for him exclusively, only Buet 2 tal and essential in their nature,, be of course his official person, the largest measure, by ypical significaney that has been mentioned. ear with peculiarly striking evidence, when

time before the 15th began to be reckoned; with the commencement of which, at night, the passover suppers were made ready and eaten. In the case of the first celebration of the feast, the lamb of each family or company, was killed at home, and its blood sprinkled upon the posts of the door; but afterwards, they were all required to be slain at the Sanctuary, and the blood and fat, as in the case of other sacrifices, appropriated to the altar. (Deut. xvi. 1-7.) The people were ordered to eat the first passover in haste, with their loins girded, and in a condition of full readiness for an immediate journey: this manner, however, which expressed the quick and sudden departure which they were compelled to make out of Egypt, seems not to have been observed in succeeding time, at least not in the latter age of the nation. If any of the flesh of these sacrifices was not eaten on the night of the feast, it was to be burned the next morning.

Various ceremonies were attached to the celebration of the Passover, in latter times, of which no mention is made in the ancient law. The following is a brief account of the manner in which it was observed in the time of our Saviour, according to the tradition of the Jews.

Individuals might bring their lambs with them to Jerusalem: but it was more common to purchase them at the temple itself, from the priests, who always had a large supply of suitable ones, ready to be disposed of on the occasion; being accustomed, it would seem, to select with care beforehand, (probably on the 10th day of the month,) from the general market which they encouraged to be held in the outer court at these seasons, such as were every way free from blemish, and to have them in readiness for as many as wanted to buy, so that they might have more security, in getting their victims, that they were altogether sound and perfect, as the law required, than they could have, if left to look for them themselves in the market, after they had arrived at the city. It was a regulation, that no lamb should be used for less than ten persons: each family, therefore, or company, was required to have at least that number of members; generally they had more, and sometimes as many as twenty. They were all determined and fixed before the victims were brought to be slain.

Women were not directly bound to appear, as the males were, at any of the three Great Festivals; yet it was held, that indirectly the law made it their duty to attend, as far as circumstances might allow especially were they under obligation, it was maintained, to be present at the Passover, inasmuch as it was written, "The whole assembly of the congregation of Israel shall kill it. (Ex. xii. 6.) They were accustomed, therefore, to come up to the feast regularly, in its season, with their husbands or fathers. Thus, whole families attended together, and most of the paschal societies were composed of one or more of them, husbands, wives, children, and servants, united to celebrate the sacred supper. In other cases, the companies were formed as convenience or inclination directed.

It is easy to conclude, that every room in Jerusalem that was large enough would be wanted on these occasions, to accommodate the vast multitude that assembled to keep the feast. The Jews have a tradition, that the houses of the city were all at such times regarded as common property, and were opened to admit as many as they could conveniently receive, without any charge whatever; so that strangers, when they came up from any part of the nation, might make use of any one they pleased that had room for them, free of all expense, and as a matter of right. Some have thought, that the inquiry of our Lord's disciples, "Where wilt thou that we prepare the passover ?" proceeded upon the fact of such an usage; and intimates, that it might have been made ready any where he thought proper; and hence, also, it is to be accounted for, they imagine, that the man to whom they were directed, so readily gave them the use of his guest-chamber as soon as they asked for it. (Mark xiv. 12-16.) The tradition, however, like various other pretty stories that are told about the holy city, seems to have but a feeble claim to credit: and certainly it is not needed to explain the case now referred to; since the question of the disciples does not necessarily imply any such thing as it affirms; and it was as easy for our Saviour to control the mind of the man whose guest-chamber he wanted, even if we suppose him to have been altogether unacquainted with him, as it was for him to make the own. ers of the colt content when it was said to them, The Mas VOL. II.


ter hath need of him, or to rule the spirits of the powerful and the proud, as well as the affronted feelings of a company of unprincipled rogues, when twice he overturned the tables of the money-changers, and drove from the temple those that profaned it with their worldly traffic.

Exceedingly great care was taken to have every particle of leaven cleared from the houses, before the time of the passover began. The law on this subject was very strict, and to make sure a proper observance of it, the most diligent pains were considered necessary. As early as the beginning of the 14th day, that is, the night before the feast, there was a general search made all over every house with lighted candles, not leaving unexamined the smallest corner or hole where it was possible for leaven in any shape to be lodged. The next morning before noon, all that could be found was carefully burned, or thrown into the water, or scattered to the wind; and every one, as he thus put away, was accustomed to repeat the established form of execution," All the leaven that is within my possession, which I have seen or which I have not seen, which I have cast out or which I have not cast out, be it as though it were not be it as the dust of the earth!" Thus was every house purged for the celebration of the passover; and after this it was not considered proper, even so much as to make use of the word leaven, lest the thought of it should pollute the mind. The unleavened bread, which was now prepared for use, was baked in the form of thin cakes, full of holes, to keep them from the slightest fermentation, unseasoned with salt, and made only with water, without any sort of oil in some cases, the higher class of the people had them enriched with sugar and eggs, though even such bread was not allowed on the first day of the feast, but only on those that followed.

The lambs were all slain, as other sacrifices, in the Court of the priests. It was a great work to kill and dress so many as were necessary for the occasion, and required a considerable part of the afternoon of the 14th day for its execution. The Evening Sacrifice accordingly, on that day, was offered before the middle of the afternoon, and the rest of the day, from that time to the end of it, was occupied altogether with this preparation for the passover. Though

only one person of each family or society entered into the court with the lamb that belonged to it, it needs not to be remarked, that it was still impossible for all these to go in at once. They were accordingly divided into three large companies, which were admitted one at a time in succession. When one of these companies had entered, the gates were closed, and immediately the owners of the lambs, or those who brought them in, began to assist each other in killing them, taking off their skins, and removing the entrails and fat. The blood was handed to the priests, to be sprinkled on the altar and poured out at its bottom, and the common portions of fat, to be burned upon its top; these standing all along in rows from the slaughtering places to the altar, and passing the articles from one to another continually to where it stood. Meanwhile, the Levites sang over, once, twice, or three times, the 113th, 114th, 115th, 116th, 117th, and 118th Psalms. These were denominated, when taken together, the Hallel, or hymn of praise, and sometimes the Lesser Hallel, to distinguish it from another that was in use, styled the Greater Hallel. As soon as the first company had their work done, they went out, and the second took their place, going over the same business in the same style: so in their turn, the third one filled the court; after which it was all washed over with water, as we may well suppose it needed to be, after such an immense slaughter. (2 Chron. xxxv. 1-19.)

The lambs thus butchered were carried away to the several houses where they were to be eaten, and immediately made ready for roasting, by being thrust through from one end to the other, by a wooden spit or stake, and so placed before a large fire. According to the commandment, each was allowed to be thus exposed, till it was roasted in a perfectly thorough manner. Soon after it became dark, that is, with the commencement of the 15th day, the passovertable was spread, and surrounded by its little company, in all the houses of Jerusalem.

The supper commenced with the ceremony of drinking a small cup of wine mingled with water, after having given thanks over it to God the Giver of all blessings. Every one had a separate cup poured out, but only one uttered the thanksgiving in the name of all. This was the first cup.

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