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three and a half along the top, from the outmost_branch on one side to the outmost branch on the other. Each of these seven tops, of the branches and their common stem, was made to terminate in a lamp. Connected with the candlestick were tongs and snuff-dishes, all made of gold; also oil-vessels for use in filling the lamps. The tongs were made probably after the fashion of scissors, to clip off the snuff, when it was immediately dropped into the snuffdishes. (Ex. xxv. 31-39.)

The lamps were supplied with the purest olive oil; such as was procured, not by the common way of pressing it out, but by bruising or beating the olives while yet somewhat green, in a mortar. The priests were required to take care that the candlestick was never without light. Every day its lamps were to be examined, and dressed, and supplied with oil, as they might need. The Jews say, that only three of the lamps were kept burning through the day, but that all of them were lighted in the evening, to burn during the night.


The light of this candlestick was symbolical of the spiritual knowledge which God communicates to his people though his word, the bible, and by the enlightening grace of the Holy Spirit. The law of the Lord is a glorious light set up in the church. (Ps. xix. 8. cxix. 105, 130. Prov. vi. 23.) In it life and immortality are brought to light, and truth revealed that guides the soul to heaven: it unfolds the knowledge of God, and of Jesus Christ, the True Light of a world made dark and desolate by sin. (John i. 4-9. viii. 12.) But all this light shines without being comprehended or perceived by the natural mind of man. divine influence is needed to open a way for it through the midst of the thick darkness that is in him by reason of sin, and to introduce it fairly and effectually to his view. Such an influence of mercy is exerted by the Holy Spirit. He shines into the hearts of all who are saved, to give them the light of the knowledge of the glory of God in the face of Jesus Christ. (1 Cor. ii. 10-12. 2 Cor. iv. 4-6.) This enlightening agency, the source of all true wisdom to man, was that which was particularly signified by the candlestick with its seven lamps shining before the Most Holy place. Thus we are taught by divine revelation itself, in

the Vision of John, the Apostle, "There were seven lamps of fire burning before the throne, which are the seven spirits of God." (Rev. iv. 5. i. 4.) The number seven denotes perfection-complete sufficiency in every way, and fulness in all respects, according to the nature of the thing spoken of.

4. The Table of Shew-bread was placed over against the candlestick, on the north side of the apartment, so as to be to the right of the priest when he walked up toward the second veil. It was made of shittim wood, and was two cubits long, a cubit broad, and a cubit and a half high. It was overlaid with gold, and had round the edge of its top, or leaf, an ornamental rim of gold, called its crown; and just under this, as it seems, the frame was compassed about with a border, a hand-breadth broad, which was crowned with a similar rim. It was provided with vessels for dif ferent kinds of service, which are called in the English translation, dishes, spoons, covers, and bowls, to cover withal. The dishes, there is reason to believe, were broad plates on which the shew-bread was placed: what are called spoons, seem rather to have been vessels in which incense was kept; (Numb. vii. 14. xx. 86;) incense we know was used on the table (Lev. xxiv. 7:) what are named covers and bowls, appear to have been two different sorts of vessels for holding wine; the first large, in which a continual supply of it was kept, and the second smaller in size, which were filled from the others, for the purpose of presenting drinkofferings before the Lord-so their use, instead of being to cover withal, was, it is most probable, to pour out withal, according to the more common signification of the word. (Ex. xxv. 23-30.)

Twelve loaves of unleavened bread were continually kept upon the table. They were placed in two piles, one loaf upon another, and on the top of each pile there was but a small quantity of pure frankincense. They were called shew-bread, or the bread of the face, because they were set solemnly before the Presence of the Lord as it dwelt in glory behind the second veil. Every Sabbath day, the loaves were changed by the priests-the old ones taken away, and the new ones put in their place. The bread that was taken away was given to the priests to eat, and no person else was allowed to taste it; neither were they suf

fered to eat it any where else except within the court of the sanctuary: because it was most holy, it was to be eaten only by sacred persons, and only upon holy ground. The incense that was on the piles was still burnt; when the bread was changed, as an offering by fire unto the Lord, for a memorial instead of the bread, or an acknowledgment that all belonged to him, while the greater part was, by his permission, consigned to the use of his servants. (Lev. xxiv. 5-9.) David, on a certain occasion, when he was an hungered together with those that were with him, and no other bread could be procured, did not hesitate to eat the shew-bread that had been removed from the sanctuary. (1 Sam. xxi. 1-6. Matt. xii. 3, 4.)

"As the Ark," says one, "signified the presence of God in his church, so this table with the twelve cakes signified the multitude of the faithful presented unto God in his church, as upon a pure table, continually serving him: made by faith and holiness as fine cakes, and by the mediation of Christ, as by incense, made a sweet odour unto God." Thus each loaf represented a tribe. There is reason to believe, however, that while it may be considered to have been a continual thankful acknowledgment of God's goodness in providing for his people their daily food, this perpetual bread was more especially designed to be a symbol of the never-failing provision which he has made in the church for the spiritual nourishment and refreshment of all the truly pious. In the words of the writer quoted a short time since, it was "a type of the spiritual provision which is made in the church, by the gospel of Christ, for all that are made priests to our God. In our Father's house there is bread enough, and to spare; a loaf for every tribe. All that attend in God's house shall be abundantly satisfied with the goodness of it. (Ps. xxxvi. 8.) Divine consolations are the continual feast of holy souls; however, there are those, to whom the table of the Lord, and the meat thereof, because it is plain bread, is contemptible. (Mal. i. 12.) Christ hath a table in his kingdom, at which all his saints shall for ever eat and drink with him." (Luke xxii. 29, 30.)

5. The Altar of Incense, or the Golden Altar, was situate between the Table and the Candlestick, so as to stand very near to the second veil, equally distant from both sides of

the tabernacle. "Thou shalt put it," was the direction of the Lord, "before the veil that is by the ark of the testimony, before the mercy-seat that is over the testimony, where I will meet with thee." It was a cubit long, a cubit broad, and two cubits high; made of shittim wood, and overlaid with gold, not only upon every side, but also over the top; furnished with four horns all overlaid in like manner, and compassed round about its upper surface with an ornamental crown, or border, of the same precious metal. No flesh ever burned upon this altar; nor was it ever touched with blood, except on the most solemn occasions; and then its horns alone were marked with the crimson stain. The smoke that rose from its top was never any other than the smoke of burning incense. This went up every morning and every evening, filling the sanctuary with its fragrant cloud, and sending a refreshing odour out through all the court and far over the country on every side for miles beyond. Because it was thus renewed every day, it was called a perpetual incense before the Lord. It was not simple frankincense that was burnt, but a compound of this with other sweet spices, made according to the particular direction of God for this special purpose, and so considered holy, such as no man was allowed to make any like unto for common use. (Ex. xxx. 34-38.) The priest was charged never to offer strange incense, that is, any other than the sacred composition, upon the golden altar.

The pious writer, from whom some remarks on the meaning of the other altar have been lately borrowed, observes :-"This incense-altar typified, 1. The mediation of Christ. The brazen altar in the court was a type of Christ dying on earth; the golden altar in the sanctuary was a type of Christ interceding in heaven, in the virtue of his satisfaction. This altar was before the mercy-seat; for Christ always appears in the presence of God for ushe is our advocate with the Father; (1 John ii. 1;) and his intercession is unto God of a sweet smelling savour. 2. The devotions of the Saints, whose prayers are said to be set forth before God as incense. (Ps. cxli. 2.) As the smoke of the incense ascended, so must our desires toward God rise in prayer, being kindled with the fire of holy love and other pious affections. When the priest was burning

incense, the people were praying, (Luke i. 10,) to signify that prayer is the true incense. This incense was offered daily; it was a perpetual incense; for we must pray always, that is, we must keep up stated times for prayer every day, morning and evening, at least, and never omit it, but thus pray without ceasing. The lamps were dressed or lighted at the same time that the incense was burnt, to teach us, that the reading of the scriptures, (which are our light and lamp,) is a part of our daily work, and should ordinarily accompany our prayers and praises. When we speak to God we must hear what God saith to us; and thus the communion is complete. The devotions of sanctified souls are well-pleasing to God, of a sweet-smelling savour; the prayers of the saints are compared to sweet odours, (Rev. v. 8,) but it is the incense which Christ adds to them that makes them acceptable, (Rev. viii. 3,) and his blood that atones for the guilt which cleaves to our best services. And if the heart and life be not holy, even the incense is an abomination, and he that offers it is as if he blessed an idol." (Is. i. 13. lxvi. 3.)

"This altar was to be placed before the veil, on the outside of that partition, but before the mercy-seat, which was within the veil. For though he that ministered at the altar could not see the mercy-seat, the veil interposing, yet he must look towards it, and direct his incense that way: to teach us, that though we cannot with our bodily eyes see the throne of grace, that blessed mercy-seat, for it is such a throne of glory, that God, in compassion to us, holdeth back the face of it, and spreadeth a cloud upon it; yet we must in prayer by faith set ourselves before it, direct our prayer and look up."

While the incense was burning, it was customary for all the people, as many as were standing without before the sanctuary, to put up prayers to God, every one silently by himself. It was understood, that the holy offering was significant of that spiritual service of adoration and holy desire which God should receive from every heart. It was understood too, by the serious believer, that there was something more signified by it: the incense, presented by the priest, and rising pure and acceptable to God most Holy from off the golden altar, represented to his faith prayer

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