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waiting to descend upon its sacred resting place, and pitched their tents in regular encampment round about. By night this mysterious cloud had the appearance of fire. (Ex. xl. 34-38. Num. ix. 15-23.) To this glorious mani. festation of the divine presence, overshadowing, protecting, and guiding the tabernacle and the chosen people in the wilderness, the prophet Isaiah beautifully alludes, in describing the happy and secure condition of the gospel church. (Is. iv. 5, 6. Zech ii. 5.) Through the wilderness of this world, the church, and every individual believer, is guarded and guided by the presence of Christ and the powerful grace of the Holy Spirit, onward to the land of promise the rest that remaineth for the people of God.
After the Israelites had entered into the land of Canaan, under the command of Joshua, the tabernacle was first set up at Gilgal. There it continued till the land was conquered. The ark, however, was separated from it, and carried before the army in the wars of the time As soon as the affairs of the country were settled in peace, it was removed from Gilgal and set up at Shiloh, a town in the tribe of Ephraim. Here it stood till after the death of Eli, considerably more than three hundred, perhaps four hundred years. (Josh. xviii. 1. 1 Sam. i. 3, 7, 9.) Hence Shiloh became a peculiarly sacred place, such as Jerusalem afterwards was, on account of the temples. (Jer. vii. 12-15. xxvi. 6-9.) Here the ark abode in its place, and hither the tribes of the Lord came up to worship. At last, however, being carried out to the field of war, (when Israel had been smitten before the Philistines, and vainly dreamed that its presence would save them, while yet they dishonoured the Lord himself by their sins, and repented not of their idolatries, to give glory to his name,) it was taken captive by the uncircumcised heathen. (1 Sam. iv. 1-22.) The Philistines were soon compelled to send it into its own country again, but it was never after restored, it seems, to its place in the tabernacle. In the days of Saul, the tabernacle was removed from Shiloh to Nob, for what reason we are not informed. (1 Sam. xxi. 1-9.) In the reign of David we find it again removed, and stationed at Gibeon. (1 Chron. xxi. 29.) The ark, meanwhile, having tarried about seventy years at Kirjath-jearim, (to which place it
had been brought after its return from the land of the Philistines,) was brought soon after David's settlement upon the throne, to Jerusalem. The first attempt to bring it up was interrupted by the unhappy death of Uzzah, in consequence of which it was carried aside into the house of Obed-edom. After three months, however, the king solemnly assembled the priests, Levites, and elders of the people, and again went to fetch it unto the royal city, with more order and reverence than had been observed on the former occasion. It was now carried, not on a new cart, but on the shoulders of the Levites, as Moses commanded, according to the word of the Lord, and so was happily brought up the rest of the way with the high sounding noise of music and joy. In Jerusalem, it was lodged in a tent which David caused to be prepared there for its reception. (1 Chron. xiii. 1-14. xv. 1-29.) There it continued till it was carried into the temple.-The tabernacle, we are informed, was, in the commencement of Solomon's reign, found still at Gibeon. (2 Chron. i. 2-13.) Finally, its sacred fabric, and all its holy vessels, were removed likewise to the temple, and so all its glory and its use were transferred to this larger and still more magnificent house.
wish temple next claims our consideration.-Its plan was the same with that of the tabernacle; was larger and more splendid, and had the fixed e of a house, while the other was a moveable tent. eaning of each was the same; the one was but a ation of the holy sanctuary which had its origin e other, and took the place of that other, accords the centre of the same great system of ceremonial P, that was instituted at first in the wilderness. emple itself did not continue the same building. Its orm perished with the great captivity; afterwards a house rose in its stead. Thus there was a first, and a d temple. Each of these is entitled to notice. Before ake notice of either, however, it will be proper to take sty survey of the city of Jerusalem in which they stood. holiness of the temple extended itself in some measure er all the city. Jerusalem was not like other cities, even the sacred land. It was the place which the Lord had hosen out of all the tribes, to put his name there. (Deut. xii. 5.) It was the city of God-the city of the Great King, whose gates he loved more than all the dwellings of Jacob. (Ps. xlviii. 1-14. xxxvii. 1-7.) Hence it was styled emphatically the Holy City; and by this name it is distinguished in the east to this day.
THE HOLY CITY.
JERUSALEM is supposed by many to have been originally called Salem; and so it is imagined, that the ancient city thus named, of which Melchisedek was king, was no other VOL. II.
than this, that became at a later period the capital of the Jewish kingdom. By the Canaanites it was called Jebus. When the land was taken by Joshua, the inhabitants of this city, though their king was subdued, could not be utterly driven out by the Israelites; but having fortified themselves in the strongest part of it, they continued to dwell there for several hundred years. (Josh. xv. 63.) At length, however, their strong hold was taken by David, and the Jebusites were for ever cut off from Jerusalem.-The strong hold in which they had so long defied the strength of Israel, was on Mount Zion, which, from the time of its capture was distinguished with the name of the City of David. (2 Sam. v. 6-9.)
Jerusalem was situated on the boundary between the tribes of Judah and Benjamin. It was builded over three neighbouring hills, Zion, Moriah, and one of less elevation than the others, named in later time, Acra. On three sides, it was bounded by valleys, separating it from mountainous heights that girded it round about with perpetual protection. (Ps. cxxv. 1, 2.) On the north it was not provided with the same natural security: its border on that side was distinguished indeed as on the others, by a considerable declivity, but the country beyond was more open. Hence the city was commonly attacked by its enemies on the north side, as an army could not approach it from any other quarter, without great difficulty. The whole was surrounded with great and strong walls, and each of the hills just mentioned had, besides, a wall of its own. In the time of our Saviour there was a considerable suburb formed to the north of the town, called the New City; this at length was inclosed also with walls by king Agrippa. All these walls were fortified with numerous towers. The compass of the whole city round about, was between four and five miles.
The most lofty of the three hills that have been mentioned was Zion, called also, as we have seen, the city of David. It appears to have occupied the southern quarter of the city. Close over against it, on the east of its northern part; rose the hill of Moriah. Acra was situated more directly north of it. The part of the town which was built on Mount Zion, received also the name of the Upper City, while that which extended itself over Acra was called the
Lower City. Zion was distinguished by noble and costly buildings; among others the citadel of David, and the royal palace, could not fail to attract a stranger's attention. Acra showed the greatest number of streets and houses; the most considerable portion of the whole city spread its population over this hill. Moriah, however, had more honour than either of these hills; on its summit was erected the temple. It was very steep, and so small at the top originally, as not to afford sufficient room for the sacred building and the courts that were to be connected with it. But by means of walls, built up from the valleys at its bottom to the same height with it, the surface above was extended, so as at last to be about half a mile in compass.
The city was separated on the east side from the Mount of Olives, by the deep, narrow valley of Cedron, through which flowed the brook of the same name, mentioned in Scripture. This brook or torrent, commences not far northward of Jerusalem, and having passed along the side of it, through the valley just mentioned, takes afterwards an easterly direction, and finds its way into the Dead Sea. It is completely dry, except during the rainy season, when it gathers a dark and muddy stream from the neighbouring hills. The valley or chasm down which it flows by the city, has been thought to be the same that is called by the prophet Joel, the Valley of Jehoshaphat.
The Mount of Olives spreads its dry and sandy height immediately east of this inconstant torrent. It rises with considerable steepness right over against the city, and is altogether more lofty than the highest parts of it; so that from the summit of Olivet, the eye overlooks Jerusalem's whole scenery of buildings and streets with perfect ease. This mount was often honoured with the presence of the Saviour. In his visits to Jerusalem, he was not accustomed, it seems, to lodge in the city, but used to go out to the vil. lage of Bethany, which was about two miles off, over on the Mount of Olives, where he was entertained by a pious and happy family, for which he had a particular regard. (Matt. xxi. Mark xi. 11, 19. John xii. 1—3.) Bethphage was on the same hill, not far from Bethany, near the road that led from Jerusalem to Jericho. There the disciples were sent for the colt, on that memorable occasion when