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to the current holdings of machine tools in all of Germany and the number that will be available after removal of plants declared available for reparations. The Machine Tool Survey has been agreed on a quadripartite basis as necessary to the control and administration of the German industrial activities.

In the U. S. Zone shortages of raw materials and all types of fuel have kept production at a low percentage of capacity. Many of the larger plant buildings were heavily damaged by allied bombings but the equipment was in surprisingly good condition. In many cases it has been necessary to reassemble in the main plant the manufacturing equipment which was distributed among a large number of relatively small dispersal plants to avoid the effects of bombing during the war. This is an added handicap to a rapid rise in production in many industries.

Transportation is a critical industry today. Because of the heavy de preciation in equipment and rolling stock, nearly all of the existing transportation and automotive industry have been concentrated on the production of spare parts and repair work. With the limited amount of steel and coal available, more locomotives, railroad cars and trucks can be put back into operation using considerably less material than would be required to manufacture new railroad rolling stock and vehicles.

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Under the severe limitations of the level of industry plan, which restricts the number of trucks and passenger cars to be manufactured throughout all of Germany to 40,000 per year in each category, five of the seven automotive plants in the U.S. Zone will be offered for reparations. At present, efforts are being made to solve the problem of spare parts for the vehicles formerly made at these plants. The maximum authorized production of vehicles allows one per 2,000 inhabitants. In the United States, production in 1938 was one vehicle per thirty inhabitants.

One of the handicaps in reviving production of cameras and other optical instruments has been the decentralization of the optical industry with the result that manufactures in the U. S. Zone are dependent upon suppliers in other zones for their parts. Some progress has been made through arrangements whereby optical glass, lenses and shutters are being supplied from the French and Soviet zones in return for a share in the production of finished cameras. The high degree of skill and experience of the German optical industry assures a ready international market for export items. At the present time the Army Exchange Service takes almost all of the camera production in the U. S. Zone. However it was recently announced that a percentage of cameras would be set aside for exports to pay for Germany's large import bill. The percentage will increase as the number of cameras manufactured rises to its pre-war level.

Farm machinery production has been given priority because of its great importance to the increased agricultural program of the U.S. Zone. There too, the emphasis has been on repair of existing equipment and the manufacture of spare parts rather than new machines.

Electrical industries have had more than their share of handicaps to full production. Before the war, nearly half of the electrical industries were located in Berlin. Bonibings and combat in the city destroyed the largest

. part of these factories. Some equipment had been evacuated from Berlin and was scattered over all four zones. This industry is only beginning to recover and find new sources for supplies of raw materials and finished parts.

Work in the heavy engineering fields, which will be drastically reduced by the level of industry decision, has been largely one of determining what plants will be allowed to remain and assuring that each industry will be able to supply its own needs, as most of the large plants were dependent on each other for equipment and parts.

After a year of accomplishment, work continues at an accelerated rate to determine which plants are to remain and which to go for reparations, and within the U. S. Zone to step up production to the maximum possible in view of the shortages of coal and material.

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Germany

possesses large natural reserves of most of the basic raw materials needed to produce the multitude of chemical products essential to any modern industrial economy. Coal, limestone, salt, potash and wood are in abundant supply within the country. However, some important chemicals, among them phosphate rock and certain vegetable tanning materials, must be imported.

In the chemical field, coal is the most important raw material, not only as a source of heat and power, but as a base for coke, coal tar, calcium carbide and the countless derivatives made therefrom. The small coal allocation allotted to the chemical industry in Germany as a whole is the main reason for the current low production rate. There are others, however. The scarcity of chemicals in all four zones has resulted in many restrictions in interzonal trade in chemicals. The U. S. Zone particularly finds itself in the difficult pasition of depending on the other three zones largely for coal, coke and coal tar products, and wholly for rubber and synthetic ammonia, both of which require coal to be produced.

The dye and pharmaceutical plants in the Zone are large consumers of intermediate products obtained from coal tar products. Coal tar is a by-product of coke and gas plants, largely concentrated in the British Zone. The rubber fabricating industry in the U. S. Zone produces a variety of items from gaskets to automotive tires. However, neither synthetic rubber nor carbon black, necessary in the production of tires and tubes, is produced in the U. S. Zone. Sulphur, used in the vulcanization of rubber and in other chemical industries, is not found in Germany and must be imported. The most common of basic chemicals sulphuric acid is made out of pyrites, and the U. S. Zone is largely dependent on the British Zone for this important raw material. The British Zone is the largest producer of coke, a raw material for the manufacture of cacium carbide. This product is used in the manufacture of cyanamid (a nitrogen fertilizer), acetylene gas for cutting and welding, and synthetic organic products for the plastics, lacquer and food industries.

Due to the “have not" position of the U. S. Zone in respect to many essential raw materials for the chemical industry, the lack of coal and the barriers to interzonal trade have prevented full utilization of the extensive chemical and intermediate fabricating and processing capacity which exists in the Zone. The problems involved are such that it may take 18 months to two years before increased production really gets under way.

One of the few items to show smaller output in June than in the preceding months was soap. This results from a shortage of fatty acids, stocks of which are nearing exhaustion, and can be replenished only by the manufacture of synthetic fatty acids in the British Zone.

To provide synthetic resin and plastics for plywood, adhesives, paints varnishes and molded parts for electrical supplies, the formaldehyde plant at

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