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On July 17, 1945, the President of the United States of America, Harry S. Truman, the Chairman of the Council of People's Commissars of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, Generalissimo J. V. Stalin, and the Prime Minister of Great Britain, Winston S. Churchill, together with Mr. Clement R. Attlee, met in the Tripartite Conference of Berlin. They were accompanied by the foreign secretaries of the three Governments, Mr. James F. Byrnes, Mr. V. M. Molotow, and Mr. Anthony Eden, the Chiefs of Staff, and other advisers.
There were nine meetings between July 17 and July 25. The Conference was then interrupted for two day while the results of the British general election were being declared.
On July 28 Mr. Attlee returned to the Conference as Prime Minister, accompanied by the new Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs, Mr. Ernst Bevin. Four days of further discussion then took place. During the course of the Conference there were regular meetings of the Heads of the Three Governments accompanied by the foreign secretaries, and also of the Foreign Secretaries alone. Committees appointed by the Foreign Secretaries for preliminary consideration of questions before the Conference also met daily.
The meetings of the Conference were held at the Cecilienhof near Potsdam. The Conference ended on August 2, 1945.
Important decisions and agreements were reached. Views were exchanged on a number of other questions and consideration of these matters will be continued by the Council of Foreign Ministers established by the Conference.
President Truman, Generalissimo Stalin and Prime Minister Attlee leave this Conference, which has strengthened the ties between the three governments and extended the scope of their collaboration and understanding, with renewed confidence that their governments and peoples, together with the other United Nations, will ensure the creation of a just and enduring peace.
11. In order to eliminate Germany's war potential, the production of arms, ammunition and implements of war as well as all types of aircraft and sea going ships shall be prohibited and prevented. Production of metals, chemicals, machinery and other items that are directly necessary to a war economy shall be rigidly controlled and restricted to Germany's approved post-war peacetime needs to meet the objectives stated in Paragraph 15. Productive capacity not needed for permitted production shall be removed in accordance with the reparations plan recommended by the Allied Commission on Reparations and approved by the Governments concerned or is not removed shall be destroyed.
(a) to carry out programs of industrial disarmament and demilitarization, of reparations, and of approved exports and imports.
12. At the earliest practicable date, the German economy shall be decentralized for the purpose of eliminating the present excessive concentration of economic power as exemplified in particular by cartels, syndicates, trusts and other monopolistic arrangements.
13. In organizing the German economy, primary emphasis shall be given to the development of agriculture and peaceful domestic industries.
14. During the period of occupation Germany shall be treated as a single economic unit. To this end common policies shall be established in regard to: (a) mining and industrial production and
·allocation; (b) agriculture, forestry and fishing; (c) wages, prices and rationing; (d) import and export programs for Ger
many as a whole; (e) currency and banking, central taxation
(b) to assure the production and maintenance of goods and services required to meet the needs of the occupying forces and displaced persons in Germany and essential to maintain in Germany average living standards not exceeding the average of standards of living of European countries. (European countries means all European countries excluding the United Kingdom and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics.)
(c) to ensure in the manner determined by the Control Council the equitable distribution of essential commodities between the several zones so as to produce a balanced economy throughout Germany and reduce the need for imports.
(d) to control German industry and all economic and financial international transactions, including exports and imports, with the aim of preventing Germany from developing a war potential and of achieving the other objectives named herein.
(e) to control all German public or private scientific bodies, research and experimental institutions, laboratories, et cetera, connected with economic activities.
16. In the imposition and maintenance of economic controls established by the Control Council, German administrative chinery shall be created and the German authorities shall be required to the fullest extent practicable to proclaim and assume administration of such controls. Thus it should be brought home to the German people that the responsibility for the administration of such controls and any break
down in these controls will rest with them-
(a) to effect essential repair of transport;
and essential utilities. 18. Appropriate steps shall be taken by the Control Council to exercise control and the power of disposition over German-owned external assets not already under the control of United Nations which have taken part in the war against Germany
19. Payment of Reparations should leave enough resources to enable the German people to subsist without external assistance. In working out the economic balance of Germany the necessary means must be provided to pay for imports approved by the Control Council in Germany. The proceeds of exports from current production and stock shall be available in the first place for payment for such imports.
The above clause will not apply to the equipment and products referred to in paragraphs 4(a) and 4(b) of the Reparation Agreement.
many occupied by the U.S.S.R. and from appropriate German external assets.
2. The U.S.S.R. undertakes to settle the reparation claims of Poland from its own share of reparations.
3. The reparation claims of the United States, the United Kingdom and other countries entitled to reparations shall be met from the Western Zones and from appropriate German external assets.
4. In addition to the reparations to be taken by the U.S.S.R. from its own zone of occupation, the U.S.S.R. shall receive additionally from the Western Zones:
(a) 15 per cent of such usable and complete industrial capital equipment, in the first place from the metallurgical, chemical and machine manufacturing industries, as is unnecessary for the German peace economy and should be removed from the Western Zones of Germany, in exchange for an equivalent value of food, coal, potash, zinc, timber, clay products, petroleum products, and such other commodities as may be agreed upon.
(b) 10 per cent of such industrial capital equipment as is unnecessary for the German peace economy and should be removed from the Western Zones, to be transferred to the Soviet Government on reparations account without payment or exchange of any kind in return.
Removals of equipment as provided in (a) and (b) above shall be made simultaneously.
5. The amount of equipment to be removed from the Western Zones on account of reparations must be determined within six months from now at the latest.
6. Removals of industrial capital equipment shall begin as soon as possible and shall be completed within two years from the determination specified in paragraph 5. The
delivery of products covered by 4(a) above shall begin as soon as possible and shall be made by the U.S.S.R. in agreed installments within five years of the date hereof. The determination of the amount and character of the industrial capital equipment unnecessary for the German peace economy and therefore available for reparations shall be made by the Control Council under policies fixed by the Allied Commission on Reparations, with the participation of France, subject to the final approval of the Zone Commander in the Zone from which the equipment is to be removed.
procedure set forth in the last sentence of paragraph 6.
8. The Soviet Government renounces all claims in respect of reparations to shares of German enterprises which are located in the Western Zones of ocupation in Germany as well as to German foreign assets in all countries except those specified in paragraph 9 below.
9. The Governments of the U.K. and U.S.A. renounce their claims in respect of reparations to shares of German enterprises which are located in the Eastern Zone of occupation in Germany, as well as to German foreign assets in Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Rumania and Eastern Austria.
10. The Soviet Government makes no claims to gold captured by the Allied troops in Germany.
7. Prior to the fixing of the total amount of equipment subject to removal, advance deliveries shall be made in respect of such equipment as will be determined to be eligible for delivery in accordance with the
The Plan for Reparations and the Level of Post-War German
Economy in Accordance with the Berlin Protocol 1. In accordance with the Berlin Protocol cluding the United Kingdom and the Union the Allied Control Council is to determine
of Soviet Socialist Republics). the amount and character of the industrial e. Retention in Germany, after payment of capital equipment unnecessary for the Ger- reparations, of sufficient resources to enable man peace economy and therefore available her to maintain herself without external for reparations. The guiding principles regard- assistance. ing the Plan for Reparations and the Level
2. In accordance with these principles, the of the Post-war German Economy, in ac
basic elements of the Plan have been agreed. cordance with the Berlin Protocol are:
The assumptions of the Plan are: a. Elimination of the German war potential a. That the population of post-war Gerand the industrial disarmament of Germany.
many will be 66.5 millions. b. Payment of reparations to the countries b. That Germany will be treated as a which had suffered from German aggression. single economic unit.
c. Development of agriculture and peaceful c. That exports from Germany will be acindustries.
ceptable in the international markets. d. Maintenance in Germany of average 3. In order to eliminate Germany's war living standards not exceeding the average potential, the production of arms, ammunition standard of living of European countries (ex- and implements of war, as well as all types
of aircraft and sea-going ships, is prohibited under the above program should, so far as and will be prevented.
practicable, be the older ones. 4. All industrial capital equipment for the
6. Non-Ferrous Metals. The annual conproduction of the following items are to be sumption of non-ferrous metals (including eliminated:
exports of products containing these metals) a. Synthetic gasoline and oil.
is fixed at the following quantities: b. Synthetic rubber.
Copper. 140,000 tons c. Synthetic ammonia.
135,000 tons d. Ball and taper roller bearings.
120,000 tons e. Heavy machine tools of certain types.
8,000 tons f. Heavy tractors.
1,750 tons g. Primary aluminium.
Chemical Industries h. Magnesium i. Beryllium.
7. a. Basic Chemicals. In the basic chemical
ir dustries there will be retained 40% of the j. Vanadium produced from Thomas Slags k. Radio-active materials.
1936 production capacity (measured by sales 1. Hydrogen peroxide above 50° strength.
in 1936 values). This group includes the m. Specific war chemicals and gases.
following basic chemicals: nitrogen, phosn. Radio transmitting equipment.
phate, calcium carbide, sulphuric acid, alkalis,
and chlorine. In addition, to obtain the reFacilities for the production of synthetic
quired quantities of fertilizer for agriculture, gasoline and oil, synthetic ammonia and
existing capacity for the production of synthetic rubber, and of ball and taper roller
nitrogen through the synthetic ammonia probearings, will be temporarily retained to meet
cess will be retained until the necessary domestic requirements until the necessary
imports of nitrogen are available and can be imports are available and can be paid for.
paid for. Restricted Industries
b. Other Chemicals. Capacity will be reMetallurgical Industries
tained for the group of other chemical pro
duction in the amount of 70% of the 1936 5. Steel
production capacity (measured by sales in a. The production capacity of the steel in
1936 values). This group includes chemicals dustry to be left in Germany should be 7.5
for building supplies, consumer goods items, million ingot tons. This figure to be subject plastics, industrial supplies, and other misto review for further reduction should this
cellaneous chemical products. appear necessary.
c. Dyestuffs, Pharmaceuticals and Syntheb. The allowable production of steel in Ger- tic Fibers. In the pharmaceutical industry many should not exceed 5.8 million ingot tons there will be retained capacity for the annual in any future year without the specific ap- production of 80% of the 1936 production, proval of the Allied Control Council, but this
measured by sales (in 1936 value). Capacity figure will be subject to annual review by
will be retained to produce annually 36,000 the Control Council.
tons of dyestuffs and 185,000 tons of synthec. The steel plants to be left in Germany tic fibers.