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of the Land of Egypts which my covenant they broke, altho I was an husband unto them, faith the Lord, v. 32. But this fhall be the covenant, that I will make with the house of Ifrael, after thofe daies, faith the Lord, I will put my Law in their inward parts, and write it in their hearts, and will be their God, and they shall be my People, v. 33. And they fball teach no more every Man his Neighbor, and every Man his Brother, saying, know the Lord. For they shall all know me from the least of them unto the greatest of them, faith the Lord. For I will forgive their Iniquity, and I will remember their fin no more, v. 34. Thefe words are quoted by the Author to the Hebrews, ch. 8. 8, &c. and applied to that Gofpel-Covenant, which God had promised to make with the Jewish People. Now because the Prophet fpeaks of Gods putting his Law in their inward parts (or as the Author to the Hebrews expreffes it, into their mind) and writing it in their hearts; our Adverfaries conclude, that God teaches Men under the Gospel by immediate Revelation. But to this I answer, that by God's putting his Law into Mens Minds or inward parts, is meant his caufing them to understand and know it; and his writing it in their hearts or affections fignifies alfo the fame, or elfe his inclining their Wills to the practice of it. And furely this may be done without immediate Revelation, viz. by the Miniflry of his Teach
If it be objected, that under the Gospel there is no need of the Miniftry of Teachers because God faies, They shall teach no more every Man his Neighbor, and every Man his brother, faying, know the Lord: for they jball all know me, from the leaft of them unto the greatest of them; I fay,
if this be objected, I anfwer, that by knowing the Lord is meant doing his Will. This appears from a paffage of the fame Prophet. Did not thy Father eat and drink, and do judgment and justice, and then it was well with him? He judged the Caufe of the poor and needy; then it was well with him, Was not this to know me, faith the Lord? Jer. 22. 16. Now God promifes, that when the Jews fhould be converted to the Chriftian Faith, they should be fo readily obedient to him, that there fhould be comparatively no need of thofe infinite exhortations to Obedience, which were too neceffary under the Law, when they were a perverfe and Obftinate, a Stubborn and Stiffnecked People, The truth on't is, this paffage feems (as perhaps I shall prove in my answer to the next objection) to relate to the General Converfion of the Jewish Nation to the Chriftian Religion; which Converfion is not as yet accomplished. The Scriptures do feem to foretell, that at that time there fhall be an univerfal practice of Gofpel-holinefs. And therefore I am the more inclined to this interpretation of the Text; because it seems to promife fuch a Meafure of Piety, as is inconfiftent with both the past and prefent great corruptions of the Chriftian World, and confequently the Prophecy contain'd in thefe Words feems to be hitherto unfulfilled.
However, tho' the Prophets Words were meant of the believing Gentiles, and might be applied to Chriftians in general; yet the practice of our Adverfaries themselves is a plain Confeffion, that they muft not be understood fo as to exclude the Miniftry of Teachers in the Church. For our Adverfaries have amongst them certain Perfons, who are in their Opinion authorized by God to labor
in the Word and Doctrine, whose bufinefs it is to inftruct Men in Religion, to call upon them to walk in the Paths of Holiness, and to encourage them to perfift therein. Mr. Barclay (a) faies, it was a fruit of Chrift's Afcenfion to fend Teachers and Paftors for perfecting of the Saints. And confequently, if the Prophets words may be applied to Chriftians in General; then, when he faies, They shall teach no more, &c, he must be underftood to fpeak comparatively, as I have already explain❜d him.
23. In Ifaiah we have these words, As for me, : this is my covenant with them, faith the Lord, my Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of the mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy feed, nor out of the mouth of thy feeds feed, faith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever, II. 59. 21. From hence our Adverfaries infer, that under the Gospel God teaches all true Chriftians by immediate Revelation. Because (in their Opinion) God himself is here faid to put his Spirit upon them, and to put words in their mouths, that is, to inftruct them in their Duty. But I fhall fhew the Weakness of this Objection by giving a true explication of the Text.
To this end I obferve, that these words do relate to none but those Perfons, who hall hereafter be converted from Judaifm to Christianity, when the fulness of the Gentiles fhall be come in. This appears from St. Paul's Difcourfe, Rom. 11. where he proves, that the Jewish Nation shall at length be brought over to the Chriftian Faith, when the Heathen World shall have embraced the Gofpel.
(4) Apol prep. 3. p. 304.
'Tis plain, that in that whole Chapter he oppofes the Jews, whom he calls God's People. v. 1. to the Gentile Converts; and confequently, that he does not speak of the Spiritual Ifrael, viz. the whole Chriftian Church, who are by Faith the Children of Abraham; but of the Natural Ifrael, viz. thofe Perfons who are Jews by extraction, and who are not part of the Spiritual Ifrael, because they were no Chriftians. Now the Apostle proves, that the Natural Jews fhall hereafter be converted to Christianity, when the fulness of the Gentiles is come in, from the Prophecy of Ifaiah, who faies, the redeemer fhall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from tranfgreffion in Jacob, faith the Lord, ch. 59. 20. which words St. Paul quotes, Rom. 11. 26. faying, And fo all Ifrael fhall be faved; as it is written, (b) There fball come out of Zion the deliverer, and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob. 'Tis plain therefore, that Ifaiah there fpeaks of the Natural Jews only, and not of the whole Chriftian Church compofed of Jewish and Gentile Converts.
Now the Prophet had no fooner faid, the Redeemer shall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from tranfgreffion in Jacob, faith the Lord, v. 20. but he adds immediately those very words, upon which the objection of our Adverfaries is built, viz. this is my covenant with them, faith the Lord, my Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy mouth, shall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy feed, nor
(b) As for the feeming difference between the Words of Ifaiah, as they are found in his Prophecy, and as they are quoted by St. Paul, the Commentators may be confulted about it, particularly 7. Milneri Conjectanea. p. 27. Lond. 1673.
out of the mouth of thy feeds feed, faith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever, v. 21. Now nothing can be more evident than that the Prophet fpeaks of the fame Perfons in both thefe verfes; and therefore, fince he speaks of none but the Natural Jews who fhall hereafter be converted to Chriftianity, v. 20. he speaks of none but the fame Natural Jews, v. 21. which was the propofition I undertook to prove.
I confefs fome Perfons do pretend to give a farther proof of this matter. For according to them St Paul quotes not only the 20th verfe, but alfo part of thofe very words which our Adverfaries urge against us. But I can by no means affent to this Opinion. For let us compare the words of the Prophet and the Apostle.
The Prophet faies, ch. 59.
v. 20. And the Redeemer fhall come to Zion, and unto them that turn from tranfgreffion in Jacob, faith the Lord.
v. 21. As for me this is my covenant with them, faith the Lord, my Spirit which is upon thee, and my words which I have put in thy Mouth, fhall not depart out of thy mouth, nor out of the mouth of thy feed, nor out of the mouth of thy feeds feed, faith the Lord, from henceforth and for ever. The Apostle faies, Rom. 11.
v. 26. And fo all Ifrael fhall be faved; as it is written, there shall come out of Zion the Deliverer, and fhall turn away ungodlinefs from Jacob.
V. 27. For this is my covenant unto them, when I shall take away their Sins.
There is no doubt, but that the 20th verfe of the Prophet is quoted in the 26th of the Apostle. But then is it not evident, that these words, when I shall take away their fins, in the 27th verfe of the Apostle, do belong to thofe words which went