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his talents, and grew familiar with the celebrated men who at that period ornamented the Scottish capital. The friendship and kindness of some of the first men of the age, could not fail to stimulate a mind like that of Campbell. He became intimate with Dugald Stuart; and almost every leading professor of the Univer sity of Edinburgh was his friend. While in Edinburgh, he brought out his celebrated "Pleasures of Hope" at the age of twenty-one. It is not too much to say of this work, that no poet of this, or perhaps any other country, ever produced, at so early an age, a more elaborate and finished performance. For this work, which for twenty years produced to the publishers between two and three hundred pounds a-year, the author received at first but 10%., which was afterwards increased by an additional sum, and the profits accruing from a 4to edition of his work. By a subsequent act of the legislature, extending the term of copyright, it reverted again to the author; but, as might be expected, with no proportional increase of profit. To criticise here a work which has become a British classic, would be superflu. ous. Campbell's pecuniary circumstances were by no means liberal at this time, and a pleasant anecdote is recorded of him, in allusion to the hardships of an author's case similarly situated with himself; he was desired to give a toast at a festive moment when the character of Napoleon was at its utmost point of disesteem in England. He gave " Bonaparte." The company started with astonishment. "Gentlemen," said he, "here is Bonaparte in his character of exe. cutioner of the booksellers." Palm the book.
seller had just been executed in Germany by the orders of the French.
After residing not quite three years in Edin. burgh, Campbell quitted his native country for the continent. He sailed for Hamburgh, and there made many acquaintances among the more enlightened of the society both in that city and Altona. There were numerous Irish exiles in the neighbourhood of Hamburgh at that time, and some of them fell in the way of the poet, who afterwards related many curious anecdotes of them. There were sincere and honest men among them, who with the energy of the national character, and an enthusiasm for liberty, had plunged into the desperate cause of the rebellion two years before, and did not despair of liberty and equality in Ireland even then. Some of them were in private life most amiable persons, and their fate was every way entitled to sympathy. The poet, from that compassionate feeling which is an amiable characteristic of his nature, wrote the "Exile of Erin," from the impressions their situ. ation and circumstances made upon his mind. It was set to an old Irish air of the most touching pathos, and will perish only with the language.
Campbell travelled over a great part of Germany and Prussia, visiting the universities and acquiring a knowledge of German literature. From the walls of a convent he commanded a part of the field of Hohenlinden during that sanguinary contest, and proceeded afterwards in the track of Moreau's army over the scene of combat. This impressive sight produced the celebrated "Battle of Hohenlinden;" an ode
which is as original as it is spirited, and stands by itself in British literature. The poet tells a story of the phlegm of a German postilion at this time, who was driving him post by a place where a skirmish of cavalry had happened, and who alighted and disappeared, leaving the carriage and the traveller alone in the cold (for the ground was covered with snow) for a considerable space of time. At length he came back, and it was found that he had been employing himself in cutting off the long tails of the slain horses, which he coolly placed on the vehicle and drove on his route. Campbell was also in Ratisbon when the French and Austrian treaty saved it from bombardment-a most anxious moment.
In Germany, Campbell made the friendship of the two Schlegels, of many of the most noted literary and political characters, and was fortunate enough to pass an entire day with the venerable Klopstock, who died just two years afterwards. The proficiency of Campbell in the German language was rendered very considerable by this visit, and his own indefatigable perse. verance in study. He eagerly read all the works he met with, some of them upon very abstruse topics, and suffered no obstacle to intervene between himself and his studies, wherever he might chance to be. Though of a cheerful and lively temper and disposition, and by no means averse from the pleasures which are so attractive in the morning of existence, they were rendered subservient to the higher views of the mind, and were pursued for recreation only, nor suffered
to distract his attention a moment from the great business of his life.
The travels of Campbell in Germany occupied about thirteen months; when he returned to England, and for the first time visited London. He soon afterwards composed those two noble marine odes, "The Battle of the Baltic," and " Ye Mariners of England," which, with his "Hohen. linden." stand unrivalled in the English tongue; and though, as Byron lamented, Campbell has written so little, they are enough alone to place him unforgotten in the shrine of the muses. In 1803 the poet married Miss Sinclair, a lady of Scottish descent and considerable personal beau ty, but of whom he was deprived by death in 1828. His residence was at Sydenham, and the entire neighbourhood of that pleasant village reckoned itself in the circle of his friends; nor did he quit his rural retreat until, in 1821, literary pursuits demanded his residence in the metropolis. It was at Sydenham, in a house looking towards the reservoir, that the poet produced his greatest work, "Gertrude of Wyoming," written in the Spen. serian stanza. It is a simple Indian tale, but the tenderness and beauty of the thoughts and expressions are scarcely equalled, certainly not surpassed, in any English poet. The speech of Outa. lissi seems to have furnished Byron with a hint for the style and form of several of his stories. About the same time Campbell was appointed professor of poetry in the Royal Institution, where he delivered lectures, which have since been published. He also undertook the editor. ship of selections from the British poets, intend ed as specimens of each, and accompanied with
critical remarks, extending to several volumes. These remarks show the erudition of the author, but they also proclaim that fastidiousness of taste and singular sensitiveness regarding all he pablishes, which is so distinguishing a characteristic of this poet. He refines, and re-refines, until his sentences appear to have lost connexion with each other, in his anxiety to render them as perfect as possible.
Soon after the publication of his Selections he again visited Germany, and spent some time in Vienna, where he acquired a considerable knowledge of the Austrian court and its manners, and closely observed that unrelaxing despotism by which it governs. He remained long at Bonn, where his friend A. W. Schlegel, resides, and passed his time in cultivating the intimacy of other literary men there. Leaving his son under the care of a tutor in Bonn University, Campbell returned to England in 1820, to undertake the editorship of the New Monthly Magazine, a pub. lication which speedily came into extensive circulation, and, with Blackwood's Magazine, which espouses the opposite side in politics, takes the lead in English menstrual literature. To the New Monthly Magazine Campbell has contributed little, indeed nothing more than is before the public with his name. He is slow, and even idle in his habits of business. To fix his attention closely for any considerable time to literary labour is a difficult thing, and composition seems rather a task than a pleasure, since the fire of his youth has cooled. He is fond of the society of his friends, and of the social hour; his stock of anecdotes and stories, which is extensive, is often