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out of bounds in the neighbouring woods, a quarrel even, with its usual consequences, would have been worth all these put together. Foot-ball was their only play which deserved the name,

and even this, when exercised under clerical inspection, was not likely to be very animated.

With all these defects of system, it would be extremely unjust to deny that much real good was done, or that the Guarani of the Reductions was a much wiser, a much better and a much happier being, than he had been in that condition from which the Jesuits took him. Had not the advantages conferred by them been sufficiently great and obvious, it is plain, indeed, that no power of spiritual exhortation would have sufficed to draw the savage from his woods, or to detain him a voluntary prisoner, in a condition of life so utterly at variance, not only with his own peculiar habits, but with the natural feelings and instinctive independence of the human

And it is almost certain, that if the power thus acquired over these uncultivated children of the desert had been more judiciously directed, and, above all, if it had been gradually removed, and the objects of this assiduous care accustomed by degrees to shift for themselves, and introduced into the commerce and society of the neighbouring European settlers, the Guaranis would, long since, have ranked among civilized nations; and have been themselves, in their turn, the instruments of dispersing the spiritual and temporal blessings of Christianity among the other native tribes of South America. Instead of this, no greater anxiety was shewn by the Jesuits than to perpetuate the state of seclusion and pupilage, which was at first undoubtedly necessary. All intercourse with the Spaniards or Portugueze was forbidden as much as possible. This was justified on the ground of the bad example which those colonists offered ; and the fact alleged in justification was probably correct. But that is a feeble virtue which cannot stand the open air; and if the Indians had been taught, as they might have been, to respect themselves, and to take care of their own spiritual and temporal interests, neither the one nor the other would have been in much danger from a race of men whom they were not likely to love, and whom they had no occasion to fear. But the true reason was, the inconsistency of such an intercourse with that equality of condition which the Jesuits sought to preserve among their pupils. The Indian who had traded in Peru, or made a voyage to Europe, would have been so much richer and wiser than the rest, that he would have been less disposed to defer to the authority of the spiritual guardian. Disparity of circumstances would bave been introduced, and, where this exists to any great degree, the government cannot be purely despotic. Accordingly, though the Jesuits had many officers who nominally answered to


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the alguazils, &c. of a Spanish town, yet were these nothing more than the monitors of a school, who, on certain solemn days, were supplied with laced hats and silken clothes from the common stock, to play for a few hours at being men and Spaniards; and again to put off their finery and go barefooted like the rest of their fellow-pupils. They found the Indian less than a child; a child they made him, but they prevented his becoming more; and then pleaded the imbecility of his character in excuse for their own backwardness in not improving him further. Yet were their labours worthy of the warmest praise, not only as originally prompted by the sincerest zeal for God and goodness, but as (by proving how much has been done, even on faulty principles, and with a religion dreadfully erroneous) they give the greatest encouragement to future labourers with the same mechanical helps, but with better lights and a purer creed. Let institutions on the Moravian plan, and for the same objects, but without the Moravian peculiarities of opinion, be encouraged by our English church, and many genera

tions will not pass away before Caffraria and New Holland coul· tain, each of them, a better Paraguay.

While the Jesuits were thus successfully exerting themselves in behalf of the Indians within the Spanish territory, their labours in Brazil were by no means equally prosperous. The labours of Anchieta and his successors had been completely done away by the Dutch invasion and the wide-spreading misery which followed it; and the loss of Angola, by suspending the supply of negroes, gave a fresh stimulus to the persecution of the wretched Americans, who were hunted down with greater zeal in proportion as they were the only objects accessible to avarice.

It is true that, as both Dutch and Portugueze had made use of the services and alliance of different Indian tribes in their contest, those tribes obtained some important privileges, in proportion to the importance of the aid they were able to supply. But these privileges were by no means enough to compensate for the added ferocity which their manners had acquired, when stimulated by the example and influence of Europeans, or the inevitable depopulation and misery occasioned by their participation in a tedious and wasteful warfare. In many parts of Brazil, indeed, the mischief was already complete, and the race of Indians almost or altogether extirpated. And even where (as in Maranham) numerous tribes still remained to exercise the humane labours of the missionary, the latter, interposing between them and their oppressors, had a far different and more energetic opposition to contend against than existed in Paraguay. The Spanish colonists were lawless, indeed, and resolutely bent on counteracting efforts which menaced their inhuman commerce with ruin; but they were few in number,

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weak in resources, unable to purchase an influence at court, and never ventured openly to oppose the positive commands of their sovereign. The Brazilians were in all these respects of a stamp extremely different. Their provinces abounded in white and Mamaluco inhabitants—many of them wealthy, most of them accustomed to war and active commerce, and all deeply interested in the continuance of those abominations which the Jesuits laboured to remove. They had, moreover, been so long accustomed to defend themselves, and to rely on their own exertions, that their allegiance to the mother-country sat estremely light on them, and they were disposed to regard no orders of the court of Lisbon, but those which exactly tallied with their own interest and prejudices. The brilliant talents and fiery enthusiasm of Vieyra, though backed by the strong personal influence which he was known to possess with Joam and his successor, were lost on people like these. One pathetic sermon, indeed, which he preached at Maranham against Indian slavery, produced some temporary effect, and a few vain measures of limitation and alleviation to evils which ought not to have been tolerated in the snallest degree; but in general, if the Jesuits were troublesome, the inob rose to murder, or the local government interfered to confine them; while all the laws which they were able to procure in favour of the savages, inadequate as those laws were, were rendered still more nugatory by the judges who administered them, or by the interested and inhuman jealousy of the other religious orders, who contrived to get themselves associated with the Jesuits in the adıninistration of the Aldeas, or establishment in which the converted savages were to reside.

It is plain, indeed, from many circumstances, that the court of Lisbon was by no means so sure of its colonies as to venture to carry any measure into execution of which those colonies did not approve. In raising the ransom which the Dutch were to receive, as well as a certain proportion of the Infanta's dowry on her marriage with Charles the Second of England, not only the form, but the spirit of a true government was manifested, and the matter was debated by the Good men of the council, according to law and custom,' in the presence and with the consent of the people.' • This,' as Mr. Southey observes, 'is curious language in the history of a Portugueze colony;' and when we add to this fact, the repeated appointments of a tribunitial power in the office of Juiz do Povo,' we may well agree with him that the temper of these countries has been by no means unfavourable to civil freedom, and that Portugal and Brazil, to obtain a full relief from all their political grievances, have only to remove the abuses under the filth and rubbish of which their wise laws and old liberties are smothered.' The misfortune is, that to clean and repair a rusty

machine is a work, for the most part, far less easy than to destroy it entirely, in the hope, or with the design, of substituting something different in its room. Those who benefit by existing abuses cry out as loudly against their removal, in however cautious a manner it is attempted, as they could do against the utter destruction of the fabric; and a gradual ainelioration is equally far from answering the views of the admirers of novelty, or seekers after mischief, who hate all old establishments alike, whether good or evil, or who desire innovation for no other reason than a hope of benefiting themselves in the scramble. It is strange how much it would be in the power of a Portugueze king or minister to effect for the good of his people, and the definition and eventual confirmation of his own legislative power, by the mere renewal of ancient forms, and the rejection of modern, very modern abuses. But that a king or minister of Portugal should either be enabled to see his interests in this their only true light; or, having seen them, to inaintain his power a sufficient time to carry his views into effect, is an event rather to be wished for than expected; while, of all the fates which can threaten Portugal or Brazil, such a revolution as was lately attempted in the northern provinces of this latter country, is that wbich is most to be deprecated. Among the leaders of that revolution were some mien of exalted minds, and patriotism unsuspected; but it is one of the greatest curses which despotism and superstition entail on those countries where they have long triumphed, that even those great minds, by whom the prevalent abuses are perceived, are not able to separate those abrises from the great principles of order and religion, of wbich they usurp and degrade the titles. They detest monarchy, because it is only offered to their notice as a devouring plague; they abhor Christianity, because they are acquainted with no other system than that Babel of idolatry and cruelty which has wearied their youth, and kept their riper years in bondage: and it is the natural consequence of an Index Expurgatorius, which alike excludes works of rational science and works of impiety, to raise the latter to the same level with the former, and thus tend, by its unavailing restrictions, to corrupt more deeply the few who seek for knowledge beyond the narrow limits of their own communion. The proceedings of the insurgents in Spanish America have been little qualified to induce us to think them ripe for independence; and in Pernambuco (we speak from accurate information) it was only the interposition of an Englishman resident in the country, which prevented the city, during the short government of the liberals, from rivalling jacobin France in its scenes of extravagance and blood. From such emancipators nothing good ever has proceeded, or ever can proceed; and we fear that the hope of reformation, either in Brazil or its mother-country, can only be safely committed to the slow effica of time, and of that increasing intimacy with England, which w inevitably make both nations love and respect each other, and wi supply the Portugueze with the best, the safest, and most practic models of improvement and liberty.


The rest of Mr. Southey's volume is occupied with the con paratively obscure and uninteresting, but necessary details of thi domestic annals of the several colonies; the differences whic now first arose, and have never terminated, between the Portu gueze and Spaniards respecting their boundaries towards th Plata ; and the premature and abortive attempt at rebellion, se on foot by one Beckman, a colonist of Maranham, of foreign ex traction, but himself a native of Lisbon, and quelled by the wis dom, courage, and generosity of Gomes Freyre, one of Mr. Southey's principal favourites, and one of the best and greatest men, of one of the best and ablest families, that either Portugal or Europe can boast. It is lamentable to reflect how the name has been tarnished by their descendants ! For the character of Gomes himself the following anecdote speaks more than the most formal eulogium. On the eve of Beckman's execution, after he had exerted remarkable talent in subduing, and no less mercy in labouring to preserve his forfeited life, he received a visit from the wife and the two unmarried daughters of the criminal.

• They were in mourning, with their hair loose, and they fell and embraced his knees. When the wife could sufficiently repress her sorrow to speak intelligibly, she said she was not come to entreat for ber husband's life, because she knew that if it had been in the governor's power to spare him, he would do it without entreaties; but she came to present two orphans to his compassion, and to beseech that he would send them to Portugal, in the ship which was about to sail, that they might be taken into his house, and wait upon his wife and daughters, and thus preserve their honour: for in Maranham, where wealth was more esteemed than birth or virtue, destitute as they now were, and regarded as the children of one who suffered death upon a gallows would be, their situation would be deplorable indeed! The unhappy girls themselves seconded this wretched petition, praying that he who in his public capacity made them orphans, would, as an individual and a Christian, so far supply the place of their father, as to grant them an asylum in his own family, even as slaves. The situation was singularly tragic, nor would such an appeal have been made to Gomes Freyre if he had been a man of ordinary character. He promised to serve them in the best manner he could, and dismissed them with an assurance which they could not doubt, from the emotion which he discovered. Accordingly, when Beckman's property, being confiscated, was put up to sale, he at his own private expense purchased the whole, and restored it immediately to the daughters, to be divided between them as their dower.'-p.630.


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