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Joseph Banks :-in short, remonstrance and persuasion were use: less, and he persevered till he was permitted to embark.
In the march overland he was taken ill at the village of Inga, about the 27th of August, but did not reach the Congo till the 7th of September, being then in a state of great exhaustion. On the 9th he became insensible, and expired, without pain, about the middle of the day. His body was interred in the burying ground of the king of Embomma, with such honours as the dispirited party left with the vessels, could bestow, by the side of his unfortunate companions Cranch and Tudor.
• Mr. Galwey had taken a very active part in collecting specimens, and making remarks on the natural products of the country, and more particularly on its geology; but both his journal and his collection are lost. They had met in their progress with a party of slave-dealers, having in their possession a negro in fetters, from the Mandingo country. From motives of humanity, and with the view of returning this man to his friends and country, as well as under the hope that he might become useful as they proceeded, and give some account of the regions through which he must have passed, as soon as he should be able to speak a little English, Captain Tuckey purchased him, and appointed him to attend Mr. Galwey; but he was utterly incapable, it seems, of feeling either pleasure or gratitude at his release from captivity; and when Mr. Galvey was taken ill, he not only abandoned him, but carried off the little property he had with him, no part of which was ever recovered.'— Introd. pp. Ixxx. Ixxxi.
We cannot suffer this occasion to pass without offering our tribute of respect and regret to the memory of another enterprizing traveller, whose name has frequently been mentioned in our pages, and the best part of whose life has been devoted to the cause of African discovery; but which unfortunately has been cut off in its prime, just at the moment when he was about to realize his plan of penetrating into the interior of this continent.
Mr.J.L.BURCKHARDT, a cadet of one of the principal families in Switzerland, was a native of Zurich. At the time when the despotism of France had closed every avenue, but one, of distinction to the youth of the continent, our young traveller, unwilling to engage in the career of a military life, came over to England, with an introduction to Sir Joseph Banks, and, after a few months' residence in London, offered his services to the African Association. The result of Park's first attempt had more effect in kindling his hopes of final success, than the fate of Houghton, Horneman, and Ledyard in depressing them. Possessed of a good constitution and an unimpeached moral character, well educated, and capable of improving his talents by application in whatever pursuit might be, found necessary to qualify him for the undertaking, he was imme
diately inlisted into the service of the Association, and received from various quarters every assistance he required in the different branches of science, to which his attention was directed.
Mr. Burckhardt left England on the 2d of March, 1809, for Malta, whence he set out for Aleppo, which he reached on the 6th of July following. Here, and at Damascus, he spent a principal part of the next three years; during which he made a variety of excursions into the Hauran and the Lesge, visited the ruins of Palmyra and Baalbec, passed some time amongst the Turkmans of the northern provinces of Syria, and perfected himself in the knowledge of the religion, manners, and language of the Mghommedan Arabs, by frequent and long residences among the Bedouins of the desert. The result of his researches in that part of the world, which he considered as merely preparatory to his great enterprize, the African Association now possess, in the form of journals, and of political, geographical, and statistical notices. On the 18th of June, 1812, he set out from Damascus for Cairo, avoiding the usual ronte of the sea coast and desert between El Arish and the borders of Egypt; and directing his course, in the disguise of the poorest of the Bedouins, from the Holy Land, east of the Jordan, by Szalt, into Arabia Petræa, and across the great desert El Ty: he reached Cairo on the 4th of September, with the intention of availing himself of the first opportunity of penetrating into Africa, which the departure of a Fezzan or a Darfour caravan might afford kim.
Finding, however, that this was not likely soon to take place, he determined to pass the intermediate time in exploring Egypt and the country above the Cataracts, and was thus enabled to perform two very arduous and interesting journies into the ancient Æthiopia; one of them along the banks of the Nile from Assouan to Dar El Mahass on the frontiers of Dongola, in the months of February and March 1813, during which he discovered many remains of ancient Egyptian and Nubian architecture, with Greek inscriptions, such as are found in the temples of Philæ;the other, between March and July in the following year, through Nubia to Souakim and Djedda. The details of this journey contain the best notices ever received in Europe of the actual state of society, trade, manufactures and government, in what was once the cradle of all the knowledge of the Egyptians.
Our traveller's next excursion appears to have been from Cairo into the peninsula of Arabia, for the purpose of visiting the holy cities of Mecca and Medina; in the former of which he resided between four and five months, making his observations secure under the character of a Mahommedan Hadjé or pilgrim, and with all the
advantage advantage of the perfect knowledge which he had now acquired in the religion, language and manners of the inhabitants. His residence in this part of the east necessarily brought him into contact with the Wahabees; and the Association have received from bim, besides a full description of Mecca, and of the early and recent superstitions of that part of the world, a very elaborate account of the rise and progress of this extraordinary sect of Mahommedan puritans, comprehending the whole of their political history from the foundation of the sect, between fifty and sixty years ago, by Abd El Wahab and Mohammed Ibn Saoud, to the peace between Abdullah Ibn Saoud and Tooson Pasha, on the part of Mohammed Ali, pashaw of Egypt, in 1815.
The last excursion of Mr. Burckhardt was from Cairo to Mount Sinai and the eastern head of the Red Sea. The journal of this interesting tour is interspersed with a variety of historical notices on the former state of the country, and annexed to it is a memoir of the wanderings of the Israelites on their departure from the land of Pharoah.
Besides these works, we are happy to learn that the Association are also in possession of a variety of notices on the interior of Africa, with several vocabularies of African languages, collected from the natives who visited Egypt during Mr. Burckhardt's detention in that country. There is also a series of nine hundred and ninetynine Arabic proverbs, in the original language, together with English translations and illustrations of the various allusions contained in them; to these is added a literal and spirited translation of a burlesque epic poem in the vulgar dialect of Cairo; the subject of which is a contest between wine and bast, the latter being a generic term for all the intoxicating substances composed of the leaves of the hemp-flower and opium, whether in the form of pastes, pills, or sweetmeats.
Such are a small part of the labours of this extraordinary person, whose accomplishments and perseverance were such as could not have failed, had he lived, to place him high in the ranks of the most distinguished travellers of this or indeed any age. He has in fact left behind him materials which have scarcely ever been equalled by any of his predecessors for the interest and importance of the subjects, the extent of his observations, and for the elegance even of his style, though written in a foreign idiom.
The close of Mr.Burckhardt's last work, we understand, is brought down to the 25th March, 1817, when the approaching summer seemed to offer to him the pleasing prospect of a caravan destined to Mourzouk, a route which he had long before decided on as the most likely to conduct towards that point which had now for many years been the principal object of his life. His expressions on this oc
casion, and which we copy from one of the last letters he was destined to write, cannot be contemplated, at the present moment, without feelings of deep regret.
• I write to Sir Joseph Banks, and repeat to you, that I am in anxious expectation of a caravan for Libya, and I have been long prepared to start on the shortest notice. I shall leave Egypt with more pleasure, because I shall now no more have to regret leaving my journals in a rude state, which would have been the case, if I had started last year; and it will afford me no small consolation upon my future travels, to think that, whatever may be my fate, some profit has, at least, bitherto accrued from my pursuits, and that the Association are now in possession of several Journals of mine treating of new and interesting countries.'
Such was the eager and lively hope with which he looked forward to joining the departing caravan! but Providence ordained otherwise. On the 5th of October, 1817, he was suddenly seized with a dysentery, which, in spite of the attendance of an English physician, hurried him to an untimely end on the 15th of that month. No words can better depict the last moments of this object of our regret, his ardent mind and his affectionate heart, than those of a letter from the consul-general of Egypt to the secretary of the African Association, of which the following is an extract:
“I have the painful task of communicating to you very heart-rending intelligence. Our valuable traveller and friend, Sheick Ibrahim, is no more; he died on Wednesday last, after an illness of only ten days continuance, of a dysentery, which baffled all the skill of Dr. Richardson, then travelling with Lord Belmore, who most fortunately happened to be present at the commencement of his malady, and who attended him with great kindness and anxious zeal throughout its progress. The Doctor tells me that he never saw an instance where the constitution made so little effort to recover itself. The disease went on from bad to worse with amazing rapidity until he sunk a victim to its ravages. On Wednesday morning his dangerous situation became very apparent, and he then felt so conscious of his approaching end, that he begged I might be sent for.
. I went over immediately, and cannot describe how shocking it was to see the change which in so short a time had taken place. On the Tuesday se'nnight previous, he had been walking in my garden, with all the appearance of health about him, and conversing with his usual liveliness and vigour; he could now scarcely articulate his words; often made use of one for the other-was of a ghastly hue, covered with a cold clammy sweat, and had all the symptomatic restlessness of approaching death. Yet he still perfectly retained his senses, and was surprizingly firm and collected, and desired I would take pen and paper, and write down what he should dictate. The following is almost word for word what he said. “If I should now die, I wish you to draw upon Mr. Hamilton for £250, for money due to me from the African Association, and, together with what I have in Mr. Boghoz' hands, (2000 piastres)
make the following distribution of it. Pay up my share of the Memnon head." (This he subsequently repeated, as if afraid I should think he had already contributed enough, which I had once hinted.) 2000 piastres to Osman,” (an Englishman whom I persuaded the Pasha to release from slavery, at Sheick Ibrahim’s particular request ;) “ 400 piastres to Shaharty, my servant. Let my male and female slave, and whatever I have in the house, which is little, go to Osman.-Send 1000 piastres to the poor at Zurich, my native place. My whole library, with the exception of my European books, I wish to go to the University of Cambridge, to the care of Dr. Clarke, the Librarian, comprizing also those in the hands of my friend Sir Joseph Banks. My European books I leave to you (Mr. Salt:) of my papers, make such a selection as you think right, and send them to Mr. Hamilton for the African Association there is nothing on Africa. I was starting in two months' time with the caravan returning from Mecca, and going to Fezzan,—thence to Tombuctoo-but it is otherwise disposed. Give
my love to my friends.” He then enumerated several persons he was living with here on terms of intimacy: he afterwards paused, and seemed to be troubled. At length, with great exertion, he said,
“ Let Mr. Hamilton acquaint my mother with my death, and say. that
my last thoughts were always with her.” His mother's name was thus apparently kept back for some time, as if he was afraid to trust himself with the mention of it. The expression also of his countenance, when he noticed his intended journey, was an evident struggle between disappointed hopes and manly resignation. Less of the weak mess of human nature was, perhaps, never exhibited on a death-bed. About a quarter before twelve at night he expired without a groan, six hours after the above-mentioned conversation. The funeral, as he desired, was Mobammedan, conducted with all proper regard to the respectable rank which he held in the eyes of the natives. On this point I had no difficulty in deciding, after his own expression on the subject. I can assure you that his loss has been a severe shock to me. I admired his talents, high integrity, and noble independence of character; and from daily witnessing the admirable prudence with which he conducted himself towards the natives, I had formed very sanguine hopes of his ultimate success in the great enterprize to which he had dedicated his life. I also loved him for his benevolence, which was exercised in the most liberal way towards all whom he knew in distress ; and to do which, with his limited income, he must have denied himself not merely luxuries. but even comforts. In conversation he was very agreeable: there was a quick sparkling in his eye, and a variety of expression in his countenance, when animated, which excited the most lively interest in the minds of those whom he was addressing; and the warmth and energy of his style and manner satisfied you that he spoke from the heart. His detestation of a man acting for his own ends against the interests of society was so excessive, that he could not speak of such a one with patience. He had been daily in the practice of paying me a visit in my garden between the hours of three and six in the afternoon; but seldom could be prevailed upon to stay dinner, as it broke in too much on his usual habits. He was kind beyond measure in giving assistance to the