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1590. Lara of Salamanca. But I was faine to forsake his [III. 564.] E companie, by reason I fell sicke in the citie of Maree quita, where they have discovered the great silver mines :

which citie is above 200. leagues from Cartagena : [ where I remained a certaine time very sicke. And

because this countrey is extreme hotte, and I every day

grew worse and worse, I was faine to travaile 30. E leagues further up into the maine land to a citie called The citie of

S. Fee in the new kingdom of Granada, being on the Santa Fee in

coast of Peru: which is a cold countrey: where I am kingdom of a admitted a procurator, for that the Royal audience is Granada Ti kept in this citie. So I finde


selfe very healthy of r bodie, by reason this countrey is full of all kind of

victuals, very good and very plentifull, as bread, cheese, bacon, beefe, great store of hennes, and great store of comfeitures. Onely here is want of golde: so that this countrey will be utterly undone, if the mines of Mare

quita help not to restore the same again : whereof there T:

is good hope: for here is great store of metall already Great store of found, and the workmen are in hand to refine the said metal found in metal : so that we are in good hope that great store of

the newe mines

of Marcquita. silver will be found in these mines of great value and profite to his majestie. This river is called the great

river of Magdalena. There is a fish in the river called The great le Cayman, which followeth after the canoas : and if it can river of Mag

dalena. reach any man in the canoa, it will haile him out and devoure him. All night they lie in the sand on shore.

In this river as we are going up, there is at certaine er

seasons great store of lightning and thunder, with such
abundance of raine, as though the skies would fall
downe: and so it doth continue from midnight until
morning: so that we are faine to go aboord the canoas,
& with certaine broad leaves which grow in the countrey,
the mariners make a covering to cast over the wares
which are laden in the canoas : and it doth keepe both

the raine & sunne from us which are passengers. The die

canoas are drawen up this river of Magdalena by maine Ie

force of the mariners in rowing and haling them with

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ropes. There are 7. or 8. Indians commonly which guide these canoas, besides the Master which keepeth the helme, and the passengers.

We are commonly two moneths in going up this river. It is 150. leagues to the landing place. And there the marchants unlade their marchandise, which serve for all the cities and townes which are in this newe kingdome of Granada. And the marchants lade the canoas backe againe from thence with great store of silver and golde which is gotten out of the mines for Cartagena, and there it is shipped for Spaine. And Spaine. And likewise here is

great quantitie of treasure laden in the sayd canoas which is for the kings custome and other dueties which are

paid : But they are but a moneth or three weekes going The richest downe the river to Cartagena. These are the richest mines in all mines in all Peru. And thus I rest. Peru,

From Santa Fee de Bogota in the new kingdome of Granada in Peru the 1o. of May 1590.

The Licentiate John de LABERA.


A letter of Hieronymo de Nabares the

licenciat John Alonso dwelling in Valladolid, written from Panama to Sivil the 24. day of August 1590. touching the gainefulnes of the trade to

to the Philippinas, and the extreme feare they have of the Englishmen.

Ot long agone I wrote to your worship

from Panama by the way of Havana : giving you to understand of my being here, & of the state of these countreys. After I departed from Spaine, in 37. dayes wee arrived at Cartagena : and

from thence I tooke shipping to goe to Nombre de Dios, which is 80. leagues from Cartagena : and in 4. dayes wee got thither. And from thence I went to Panama : where I have remained these 20. dayes, till the shippes goe for the Philippinas.



1590. My meaning is to carie my commodities thither : for it is constantly reported, that for every hundred ducats a The great man shall get 600. ducats cleerely. Wee must stay here profite of the in Panama from August till it be Christmasse. For

Philippinas. in August, September, October and November it is winter here, and extreme foule weather upon this coast of Peru, and not navigable to goe to the Philippinas, nor to any place else in the South sea. So that at Christmasse the ships begin to set on their voyage for those places : and then in these parts the summer beginneth with very faire weather, and alwayes we shall have the windes with For in July until October here is terrible thundering and lightening with extreme raines, so that it is not possible to go any way in this countrey. Here are in Panama 10. great ships of 500, 400, 300, & 200. tuns apiece, & some 15. barkes which use commonly to saile in the South sea to Lima, to the Valles, to Arica, and to the Philippinas. This countrey in the summer is so extreme hotte, that it is not possible to travel in the day time : [III. 565.] it standeth in 8. deg. & j. and all this coast is in 9. and 10. deg. Here is great store of adders, snakes and toades, which are in the houses, but they doe but small hurt. Here bread, wine, and bacon are very deere, by reason the countrey doth not yeeld it : for it is brought from Peru. A li. of bread is worth here 2. rials of plate: a quart of wine is solde for 4. rials : for none groweth here. Here are very few sheep, and those extreme deere. The only food here for Alesh, are oxen, kine, buls & heffkers : you may buy 20. li. Twenty li. of of beefe for one rial of plate. Their smallest money

beefe may bee of silver is a rial of plate, & very few of them, but all bought for sixe

pence in Peru. pieces of 4. & 8. For the silver mines which dayly be found in Peru be wonderfull to bee spoken of. If a man did not see the silver made, hee would never beleeve it: for the very earth which commeth out of the mines, & is afterward washed, being but 3. or 4. yeres on a mount, yeeldeth great store of

very much.

8. rials apeece.


silver afterwards againe. But as here we get much, so our charge in meat, drinke and apparell doth cost

As for fruite here is none that is good, but onely muske melons, and they are sold for 6. or

I can certifie your worship of no newes, but only, that all this countrey is in such extreme The English- feare of the Englishmen our enemies, that the like was men extremely feared in Peru.

never seene or heard of: for in seeing a saile, presently here are alarmes in all the countrey. I pray you to write unto me as touching the wars that his Majestie hath with our enemies, and howe his Majestie doth prevaile. And thus I rest. From Panama in the firme land the 28. of Aug. 1590.


A relation of a memorable fight made the 13.

of June 1591. against certaine Spanish ships & gallies in the West Indies, by 3. ships of the honorable sir George Carey knight, then marshall of her Majesties

Majesties houshold, and captaine of the Ile of Wight, now lord Hunsdon, lord Chamberlaine, and captaine of the honourable band of her Majesties Pensioners.

He 13. of June 1591. being sunday, at 5.

of the clock in the morning we descried 6. saile of the king of Spaine his ships. Foure of them were armadas, (viz. the Admirall and viceadmirall of 700. tuns apeece, and the other 2. of 600. apeece)

and the other 2. were smal ships, each of them about 100. tuns. We met w' them off the Cape de Corrientes, which standeth on the Iland of Cuba. "The sight of the foresaid ships made us joyfull, hoping that they should make our voyage.

But assoone as they descryed us, they made false fires one to another & gathered their fleet together, lying all close by a wind to

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the Southwards. We therefore at 6. of the clock in the morning (the wind being at East) having made our prayers to almighty God, prepared our selves for the fight: And (in hope they had bene of the Cartagena fleete) wee bare up with our admirall and viceadmiral, to determine of the combate for the better direction thereof. Our parle being ended, our admiral, viceadmiral, & the Hopewel gave their admiral the prow, bringing themselves to leeward of him. We in the Content bare up with their viceadmiral, and (ranging along by his broad side aweather of him) gave him à voley of muskets and our great ordinance: then comming up with another small ship ahead of the former, wee hailed her in such sort, that shee payd roome. Thus being in fight with the little ship, we saw a great smoke come from our admiral, and the Hopewel & Swallow forsaking him with all the sailes they could make: whereupon bearing up with our admiral (before we could come to him) we had both the small ships to windward of us, purposing (if we had not bene too hotte for them) to have layd us aboord. Thus (the fight continuing between us and them 3. houres) we were forced to stand to the Northwards, the Hopewel and the Swallow not comming in all this while to ayd us, as they might easily have done. Our admirall by this time being in fight with their viceadmiral, and another great ship of theirs, stood off to sea with his topgallant saile, and all the sailes he could make: then might the Hopewel & the Swallow have payd roome to second him, but they failed him as they did us, standing off close by a wind to the Eastward. All this time we were forced to the Northwards with 2. of their great ships and one of their small. They having a loom gale (wee being altogether becalmed) w both their great ships came up faire by us, shot at us, and on the sudden furled their spritsailes & mainsailes, thinking that wee could not escape them. Then falling to prayer, we shipped our oars that we might rowe to shore, & anker in shallow water where their great ships could not come

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