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NOMINATION OF PHILIP C. JESSUP
THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1951
UNITED STATES SENATE,
Washington, D. C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 o'clock a. m., in room P-63, United States Capital, Senator John J. Sparkman, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.
Present: Senators Sparkman (chairman), Fulbright, Gillette, Smith of New Jersey.
Senator McCARTHY. I don't know what the practice of the committee is going to be, but I feel very strongly that all witnesses should be sworn, including myself, of course.
Senator SPARKMAN. That is our intention.
Senator McCARTHY. I may say, Mr. Chairman, that my time is somewhat restricted today. I am leaving here for Santa Fe. I think niy plane is going to take off around 1 o'clock.
Senator SPARKMAN. Suppose we get started, then.
Senator McCARTHY. If the committee members haven't asked all the questions they care when I have to go, I will certainly be glad to come back at the committee's convenience.
Senator SPARKMAN. We have word that Senator Brewster will be late.
The committee will come to order.
The purpose of this hearing is to hear evidence relating to the qualifications and fitness of Mr. Philip C. Jessup to represent the United States as a member of the United States delegation to the Sixth General Assembly of the United Nations.
Our first witness is Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin. Senator McCarthy, I will ask you to stand and raise your right hand and be sworn.
Do you swear that the evidence you shall give to this committee in the statement that you make in the proceedings before the committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?
Senator McCARTHY. I do.
Senator SPARKMAN. Senator McCarthy, you may proceed in your own way.
Do you have a prepared statement ?
STATEMENT OF HON. JOSEPH R. MCCARTHY, A UNITED STATES
SENATOR FROM WISCONSIN Senator McCARTHY. I don't have a prepared statement, Mr. Chair. man. I am going to present to the committee largely documents. (See Appendix of this volume.) I may say that I certainly welcome any interruption by the members of the committee at any time as I go through.
The committee will perhaps recall that last year I made the statement that Jessup had a great affinity for Communist causes. For that reason, what I propose to do today is to show by the reproduction of documents that he does have a great affinity for Communist causes.
NATIONAL EMERGENCY CONFERENCE FOR DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS * Exhibit No. 1, which consists of a number of pages, covers the Communist front affiliations of Philip C. Jessup. I know, of course, the committee realizes that I didn't name these organizations as Communist front, but they are named as fronts for and doing the work of the Communist Party by the Attorney General.
First, the National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights, 305 Broadway, New York.
The committee will note the name of Prof. Philip C. Jessup. Also note that this organization has been cited as a Communist front by the Special Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, report, March 29, 1944, pages 48 and 102, and here is a statement made September 2, 1947, by the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, report No. 115.
Senator SMITH of New Jersey. May I interrupt you just a minute? I notice this exhibit you have here is dated February 15, 1940.
Senator McCARTHY. That is right.
Senator SMITH of New Jersey. And it indicates that at that time apparently one of the sponsors was Prof. Philip C. Jessup.
Senator McCARTHY. That is right.
Senator SMITH of New Jersey. Did Mr. Jessup continue to be a sponsor in the years you are citing now, when it was named as a subversive activity ?
Senator McCARTHY. I may say that I with my very restricted staff, have been unable to get the letterhead from this Communist front. They don't cooperate with McCarthy very well, so I could not tell you what the date was when he severed his affiliation or whether he did.
Let me say in that connection, Senator Smith, that if Philip Jessup was affiliated with only one Communist front I frankly would not consider it too significant, because one of the reasons, as the Senator knows, why the Communist fronts have been successful is because they have been able to dupe some well-meaning people into loaning their names to the organization, and as you find a list of names of these various Communist fronts you will find a very few fine people, I think, in almost every one. You don't find the same good people on all six.
In that connection may I say that one of the intelligence officers who was before, I believe, it was the Appropriations Committee, and I am not sure whether it was J. Edgar Hoover, or who it was, was asked the question whether it was significant to find a man with membership in one Communist front. His answer was:
1 Subheadings within the text have been inserted by the committee staff in order to make the hearings more readable and easier to follow.
Not necessarily, but if you find that he belongs to two or three or four or five or six, that then either he is so naive that he is dangerous, holding a position of responsibility, or he is loyal to the Communist cause.
As another witness put it, he said:
Let's put it this way: If you find a young man belongs to the Lutheran Young Men's Society, you may assume he is a member of the Lutheran Church. If you find he is a member of the Holy Name Society or the Knights of Columbus, you may assume he belongs to the Catholic Church. Likewise, if he belongs to a number of organizations doing the work of the Communist-Party, you can assume he is either loyal to the teachings of the Communist Party or a complete dupe.
Senator SMITH of New Jersey. Then the main burden of your argument would be that there is an implication of guilt because he has been associated with some of these organizations?
Senator McCARTHY. Associated with an organization, Senator, that has been officially named as a secret front for doing the work of the Communist Party.
DATE OF MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION Senator Smith of New Jersey. Then it becomes very important to point out, if it is true, that he continued as a member of those organizations after they had been named as Communist-front organizations. If he happened to belong 10 years before, when we were on friendly relations with Russia, I think it might be different, unless at that time they were planning subversive activity of some sort to which he was a party.
Senator McCARTHY. On February 15, 1940, I believe the pact was existing between Hitler and Stalin, so you can hardly assume a friendly relationship.
Let me say this: I don't propose at this time to present all of the evidence against Philip Jessup. I hope by giving the Senate sufficient to show that he had this affinity for Communist causes that one alone would not be significant, but as we go over the six of them, I am sure the Senator will agree with me that Jessup knew what he was doing.
The last time I was testifying, Senator, at that time I said that while the voice was the voice of Jessup, the hand and brain were the hand and brain of Lattimore. I felt at that time that Jessup was more of a dupe than deliberately taking part in these activities. Since then, however, there is a serious question on that, especially since much of the evidence coming out before the McCarran Committee on Jessup's activities and some of the others I will cite here.
I read the citation of March 29, 1944.
The next citation, by the California State Legislative Committee on Un-American Activities, report 1948.
Senator SMITH of New Jersey. You are now referring to exhibit No. 1?
Senator McCARTHY. I am referring to the first page of exhibit No. 1, entitled "Communist Front No. 1."
The first exhibit, Senator, consists of a sizable number of pages.
Excerpt from the guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications,
May 24, 1951, Committee on Un-American Activities.-------
Excerpt from Congressional Record, November 7, 1941, Vote in the
Senate on the Army of Merchant Vessels.-
Article from Daily Worker, February 27, 1937, as it appears in an
Statement by Philip C. Jessup, Interim Committee, February 24, 1948,
on the question of Korea in the U. N. Interim Committee_
Excerpts from L'Humanité, May 7, 1951, and May 30, 1951..
and April 11, 1951..
lege, Clipton, N. Y., June 11, 1950-------
rium, January 15, 1951.----
Extracts from address by Philip C. Jessup, luncheon meeting of the
Philadelphia World Affairs Council, November 24, 1950-
April 13, 1950.-
Interview by Eric Severeid with Philip C. Jessup, State Department
press release No. 876, August 26, 1950__-
Four Power Deputies meeting, Paris, France, June 21, 1951.------
NBC television program, July 20, 1951--------
Endowment for International Peace, September 26, 1951.---------