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NOMINATION OF PHILIP C. JESSUP

THURSDAY, SEPTEMBER 27, 1951

UNITED STATES SENATE,
COMMITTEE ON FOREIGN RELATIONS,
SUBCOMMITTEE ON NOMINATIONS,

Washington, D. C. The subcommittee met, pursuant to notice, at 11 o'clock a. m., in room P-63, United States Capital, Senator John J. Sparkman, chairman of the subcommittee, presiding.

Present: Senators Sparkman (chairman), Fulbright, Gillette, Smith of New Jersey.

Senator McCARTHY. I don't know what the practice of the committee is going to be, but I feel very strongly that all witnesses should be sworn, including myself, of course.

Senator SPARKMAN. That is our intention.

Senator McCARTHY. I may say, Mr. Chairman, that my time is somewhat restricted today. I am leaving here for Santa Fe. I think niy plane is going to take off around 1 o'clock.

Senator SPARKMAN. Suppose we get started, then.

Senator McCARTHY. If the committee members haven't asked all the questions they care when I have to go, I will certainly be glad to come back at the committee's convenience.

Senator SPARKMAN. We have word that Senator Brewster will be late.

The committee will come to order.

The purpose of this hearing is to hear evidence relating to the qualifications and fitness of Mr. Philip C. Jessup to represent the United States as a member of the United States delegation to the Sixth General Assembly of the United Nations.

Our first witness is Senator Joseph McCarthy of Wisconsin. Senator McCarthy, I will ask you to stand and raise your right hand and be sworn.

Do you swear that the evidence you shall give to this committee in the statement that you make in the proceedings before the committee shall be the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, so help you God?

Senator McCARTHY. I do.

Senator SPARKMAN. Senator McCarthy, you may proceed in your own way.

Do you have a prepared statement ?

STATEMENT OF HON. JOSEPH R. MCCARTHY, A UNITED STATES

SENATOR FROM WISCONSIN Senator McCARTHY. I don't have a prepared statement, Mr. Chair. man. I am going to present to the committee largely documents. (See Appendix of this volume.) I may say that I certainly welcome any interruption by the members of the committee at any time as I go through.

The committee will perhaps recall that last year I made the statement that Jessup had a great affinity for Communist causes. For that reason, what I propose to do today is to show by the reproduction of documents that he does have a great affinity for Communist causes.

NATIONAL EMERGENCY CONFERENCE FOR DEMOCRATIC RIGHTS * Exhibit No. 1, which consists of a number of pages, covers the Communist front affiliations of Philip C. Jessup. I know, of course, the committee realizes that I didn't name these organizations as Communist front, but they are named as fronts for and doing the work of the Communist Party by the Attorney General.

First, the National Emergency Conference for Democratic Rights, 305 Broadway, New York.

The committee will note the name of Prof. Philip C. Jessup. Also note that this organization has been cited as a Communist front by the Special Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, report, March 29, 1944, pages 48 and 102, and here is a statement made September 2, 1947, by the Congressional Committee on Un-American Activities, House of Representatives, report No. 115.

Senator SMITH of New Jersey. May I interrupt you just a minute? I notice this exhibit you have here is dated February 15, 1940.

Senator McCARTHY. That is right.

Senator SMITH of New Jersey. And it indicates that at that time apparently one of the sponsors was Prof. Philip C. Jessup.

Senator McCARTHY. That is right.

Senator SMITH of New Jersey. Did Mr. Jessup continue to be a sponsor in the years you are citing now, when it was named as a subversive activity ?

Senator McCARTHY. I may say that I with my very restricted staff, have been unable to get the letterhead from this Communist front. They don't cooperate with McCarthy very well, so I could not tell you what the date was when he severed his affiliation or whether he did.

Let me say in that connection, Senator Smith, that if Philip Jessup was affiliated with only one Communist front I frankly would not consider it too significant, because one of the reasons, as the Senator knows, why the Communist fronts have been successful is because they have been able to dupe some well-meaning people into loaning their names to the organization, and as you find a list of names of these various Communist fronts you will find a very few fine people, I think, in almost every one. You don't find the same good people on all six.

In that connection may I say that one of the intelligence officers who was before, I believe, it was the Appropriations Committee, and I am not sure whether it was J. Edgar Hoover, or who it was, was asked the question whether it was significant to find a man with membership in one Communist front. His answer was:

1 Subheadings within the text have been inserted by the committee staff in order to make the hearings more readable and easier to follow.

Not necessarily, but if you find that he belongs to two or three or four or five or six, that then either he is so naive that he is dangerous, holding a position of responsibility, or he is loyal to the Communist cause.

As another witness put it, he said:

Let's put it this way: If you find a young man belongs to the Lutheran Young Men's Society, you may assume he is a member of the Lutheran Church. If you find he is a member of the Holy Name Society or the Knights of Columbus, you may assume he belongs to the Catholic Church. Likewise, if he belongs to a number of organizations doing the work of the Communist-Party, you can assume he is either loyal to the teachings of the Communist Party or a complete dupe.

Senator SMITH of New Jersey. Then the main burden of your argument would be that there is an implication of guilt because he has been associated with some of these organizations?

Senator McCARTHY. Associated with an organization, Senator, that has been officially named as a secret front for doing the work of the Communist Party.

DATE OF MEMBERSHIP IN ORGANIZATION Senator Smith of New Jersey. Then it becomes very important to point out, if it is true, that he continued as a member of those organizations after they had been named as Communist-front organizations. If he happened to belong 10 years before, when we were on friendly relations with Russia, I think it might be different, unless at that time they were planning subversive activity of some sort to which he was a party.

Senator McCARTHY. On February 15, 1940, I believe the pact was existing between Hitler and Stalin, so you can hardly assume a friendly relationship.

Let me say this: I don't propose at this time to present all of the evidence against Philip Jessup. I hope by giving the Senate sufficient to show that he had this affinity for Communist causes that one alone would not be significant, but as we go over the six of them, I am sure the Senator will agree with me that Jessup knew what he was doing.

The last time I was testifying, Senator, at that time I said that while the voice was the voice of Jessup, the hand and brain were the hand and brain of Lattimore. I felt at that time that Jessup was more of a dupe than deliberately taking part in these activities. Since then, however, there is a serious question on that, especially since much of the evidence coming out before the McCarran Committee on Jessup's activities and some of the others I will cite here.

I read the citation of March 29, 1944.
Also the citation of September 2, 1947.

The next citation, by the California State Legislative Committee on Un-American Activities, report 1948.

Senator SMITH of New Jersey. You are now referring to exhibit No. 1?

Senator McCARTHY. I am referring to the first page of exhibit No. 1, entitled "Communist Front No. 1."

The first exhibit, Senator, consists of a sizable number of pages. 162

186

190

194

Insertions (additional information supplied)-Continued

Page

Biographical data of Philip C. Jessup------

State Department press release No. 558, May 27, 1950.-

164

Excerpts from the Commonwealth of Massachusetts. Report of the

Special Commission to Investigate Subversive Organizations,

Resolves of 1937-----

Dinner invitation, 1944, of the American-Russian Institute ---

188

Dinner program, 1946, of the American-Russian Institute --

Excerpt from the Fourth Report, Un-American Activities in California,

1948 (pp. 169–172) --

Excerpt from the guide to Subversive Organizations and Publications,

May 24, 1951, Committee on Un-American Activities.-------

Bulletin of the Coordinating Committee to Lift the Spanisb Embargo__

Letter of Phillip C. Jessup and Charles Cheney Hyde, September

21, 1939 ---

America First Bulletin, November 1, 1941.--

Excerpt from Congressional Record, November 7, 1941, Vote in the

Senate on the Army of Merchant Vessels.-

Article from the Tablet, September 20, 1941_-

Excerpt from the President's report to the Congress, 1949, on United

States participation in the United Nations.--

Pamphlet of the second annual convention of the American Law

Students' Association, February 12 and 13, 1938-------

Excerpts from Un-American Propaganda Activities, appendix IX,

1944 (pp. 1067, 1068, 1069, 1093)-------

Excerpt from hearings of a Special Committee on Un-American Activ-

ities, House of Represenatives, Seventy-sixth Congress, first session

(pp. 7036–7041)------

Article from Daily Worker, February 27, 1937, as it appears in an

pendix IX.------

Excerpt from Special Congressional Committee on Un-American Activ-

ities hearings (vol. I, pp. 582-583, 1938)-------

Article from the Ladies Home Journal, May 1941-------------------

Bulletin of the China Aid Council ----

--- 256, 257

Outline of United China Relief, Inc., for board members of partici-

pating agencies------

Letterhead used by United China Relief, Inc., on-

September 6, 1941-------

March 14, 1942_----

May 1, 1943-------

Second annual report, United China Relief, Inc., for the year 1942_

Letterhead used by United China Relief, Inc., on June 19, 1945------

Speech of Harold E. Stassen, to the Academy of Military Science,

November 8, 1945-----

Senate confirmations of Philip C. Jessup relative to Ambassador

Austin's letter-------

United Nations Commission on Korea.-------------

Statement by Philip C. Jessup, Interim Committee, February 24, 1948,

on the question of Korea in the U. N. Interim Committee_

Statement by Philip C. Jessup:

Rochester, N. Y., April 17, 1948.

Interim Committee, March 13, 1948.-

Vandenberg resolution---------

Statement by Philip C. Jessup:

Political and Security Committee, May 13, 1948_--

Security Council official records, third year, No. 132, December

22, 1948---

Security Council:

January 11, 1949–

January 21, 1949------

Statement by Ambassador Austin :

Before Security Council, March 10, 1949-----

Plenary session on Indonesia, December 7, 1949.--

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Insertions (additional information supplied)-Continued

Statement by Philip C. Jessup:

Political Committee :

September 30, 1949---

December 4, 1949------

Plenary session, November 18, 1949.-

Committee I:

November 28, 1949_--

December 5, 1949---

December 6, 1949-------

Fourth General Assembly, December 7, 1949.-

Excerpt from President's report to Congress, 1948, on United States

participation in United Nations--------

Excerpt from the President's report to Congress for the year 1949 on

United States participation in the United Nations.----

Statement by Philip C. Jessup:

Security Council :

October 6, 1948.

October 10, 1948_---

October 25, 1948------

Article by Hanson W. Baldwin, New York Times, December 18, 1949__

Foreword to the Economic Handbook of the Pacific Area -----

Philip C. Jessup's covering letter to the IPR board of trustees, June

28, 1940---

Report of Frederick Vanderbilt Field to the IPR board of trustees,

June 28, 1940.--

Letter of Frederick Field, October 24, 1940__

Biennial Report of American Council, Institute of Pacific Relations,

Inc., 1944-46-------

Delegation at Hot Springs conference, January 1, 1945--------

Minutes of board of trustees meeting, March 18, 1947---

Letter to the board of trustees, December 19, 1944--------

Letter to members of the IPR, March 17, 1947---

Article from the Soviet State and Law, the International Law of

American Imperialistic Bandits-------

Excerpts from Tass dispatches, April 22, 1951; May 26, 1951; and

May 30, 1951.-----

Excerpts from L'Humanité, May 7, 1951, and May 30, 1951..
Excerpts from Ce Coir, March 1951; March 9, 1951 ; March 30, 1951 ;

and April 11, 1951..
Address by Philip C. Jessup, commencement exercises, Hamilton Col-

lege, Clipton, N. Y., June 11, 1950-------
Excerpts from address by Philip C. Jessup, State Department audito-

rium, January 15, 1951.----

Statement by Philip C. Jessup before a subcommittee of the Committee

on Foreign Relations, March 20, 1950.---

Extracts from address by Philip C. Jessup, luncheon meeting of the

Philadelphia World Affairs Council, November 24, 1950-
Address by Philip C. Jessup, American Broadcasting Co. network,

April 13, 1950.-
Statement by Philip S. Jessup for NBC television program, September
24, 1950_----

---------

Address by Philip C. Jessup, Middlebury College, September 30, 1950.-

Highlights of address by Philip C. Jessup, University of Virginia,

July 10, 1950.--

Interview by Eric Severeid with Philip C. Jessup, State Department

press release No. 876, August 26, 1950__-
Address by Philip C. Jessup, Tinion College, February 23, 1951..
Statement by Philip C. Jessup :

Four Power Deputies meeting, Paris, France, June 21, 1951.------
Colgate University, July 26, 1951.

NBC television program, July 20, 1951--------
Address by Philip C. Jessup, round table on world affairs, Carnegie

Endowment for International Peace, September 26, 1951.---------

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