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“ more properly called Evil, than in the Passions before men. 6 tioned.

« If the Good be absent or unpossessed, and possible to be « obtained, the Passion of Love grows up to Defore; if the « Evil may posibly come upon us. the Hatred expresses it« felf in Averfion, or Avoidance. Though there may be also « an Averfion to some Evil from which we are sufficiently

secure.

“ If there be any Prospect of obtaining the absent Good, the “ Paffion excited is Hope; but if the absent Evil be likely to “ come upon us, it raises the Passion of Fear.

Fear also arises from a present or expected Good in danger “ of being lost : And there is a Hope of Security from some ab« sent threatening Evil, or of Deliverance from some Evil that « is present.

« If the Good be actually obtained, or the Evil prevented, “ it excites Joy and Gladness; if the Good be actually loft, or

the Evil come upon us, it causes Sorrow or Grief.

" Whoever helps us to attain this Good, or prevents the * Evil, excites in us Gratitude : Whosoever hinders our " Attainment of Good, or promotes the Evil, raises our

" There are very few, if any, of the Passions for which « we have any Name, and which are usually taken notice " of in the Heart of Man, but what may be reduced to some « or other of these general Heads. And tho' I don't pretend u to lay down this Piftinction and Arrangement of the Paffions < of Man, as an uncontroverted or certain Thing; yet upon « the beft Survey I can take of the various Works of the Heart,

as well as of the several Authors who have written on this " Sabject, I don't find any of them lead me into an eafier or e better Scheme than this."

Thus far Mr. Watts : which, as it is a concise, as well as fenfible Account of the Passions, I thought it not improper to put into your Hands at this Time; for though it be not directly to the Purpose, yet it is far from being altogether foreign to it'; since he who searches into and understands the fecret Springs and Causes of the Passion, will in all Probability express them with greater Judgment and Spirit, than he who merely copies them from the external Appearance.

Mr. Le Brun has been extremely happy in expressing many of the Paffions, and you cannot study any thing better than the Examples which he has left us of them ; some of which are carefully copy'd in the Plate which corresponds to this Lef

fon,

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son. However, I am of Opinion, with Mr. De Piles, that it is absurd as well as impossible to pretend to give such particular Demonstrations of them as to fix their Expression to certain Strokes, which the Painter should be obliged to make use of as essential and invariable Rules. This, says he, would be depriving the Art of that excellent Variety of Expression, which has no other Principle than Diversity of Imagination, the Number of which is infinite. The fame Paffion may be finely expressed several Ways, each yielding more or less Pleafure in proportion to the Painter's Understanding, and the Spectator's Discernment.

Tho' every Part of the Face contributes toward expressing the Sentiments of the Heart, yet the Eye-brow, according to Mr. Le Brun, is the principal Seat of Expreslion, and where the Passions beft make themselves known. 'Tis certain, says he, that the Pupil of the Eye, by its Fire and Motion, very well shews the Agitation of the Soul, but then it does not express the kind or Nature of such an Agitation ; whereas the Motion of the 'Eye-brow differs according as the Passions change their Nature. To express a simple Passion, the Motion is simple; to express a mixt Passion, the Motion is compound: if the Passion be gentle, the Motion is gentle ; and if it be violent, the Motion is so too. We may observe farther, says he, that there are two kinds of Elevation in the Eyebrows. One, in which the Eye-brows rise up in the Middle; this Elevation expresses agreeable Sensations; and it is to be observed that then the Mouth rises at the Corners : Another, in which the Eye-brows rise up at the Ends, and fall in the Middle ; 'this Motion denotes bodily Pain, and then the Mouth falls at the Corners. In Laughter all the Parts agree; for the Eye-brows, which fall toward the Middle of the Forehead, make the Nose, the Mouth, and the Eyes, follow the same Motion. In Weeping, the Motions are compound and contrary, for the Eye-brows fall toward the Nose and over the Eyes, and the Mouth rises that Way. :Tis to be observed also that the Mouth is the Part of the Face which more par ticularly expresses the Emotions of the Heart: For when the Heart complains, the Mouth falls at the Corners; when it is at Ease, the Corners of the Mouth are elevated ; and when it has an Aversion, the Mouth floots forward, and rises in the Middle.

“ The Head, fays Mr. De Piles, contributes more to the “ Expression of the Pasions, than all the other Parts of the “ Body put together. Those separately can only thew fome

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* few Passions, but the Head expresses them all. Some, « however, are more peculiarly express’d by it than others;

as, Humility, by hanging it down; Arrogance, by lifting “it up; Languishment, by inclining it on one side; and

Obstinacy, when with a stiff and resolute Air it stands 6. upright, fixt, and stiff between the two Shoulders. The “ Head also best fhews our Supplications, Threats, Mildness, “ Pride, Love, Hatred, Joy, and Grief. The whole Face, 6 and every Feature, contributes fomething; especially the “ Eyes, which, as Cicero fays, are the Windows of the Soul. “ The Passions they more particularly discover are, Pleasure,

Languifhing, Scorn, Severity, Mildness, Admiration, and “ Anger; to which one might add Joy and Grief, if they did

not proceed more particularly from the Eye-brows and “ Mouth ; but when those two Passions fall in also with the

Language of the Eyes, the Harmony will be wonderful. 66 But tho the Passions of the Soul are most visible in the Lines “ and Features of the Face, they often require the Assistance “ also of the other Parts of the Body. Without the Hands, 6 for Instance, all Action is weak and imperfect; their Mo« tions, which are almost infinite, create numberless Expref“ fions: It is by them that we defire, hope, promise, call,

send back; they are the Instruments of Threatening, Prayer, 6 Horrer, and Praise; by them we approve, condemn, refuses « admit, fear, afk ; express our Joy and Grief, our Doubts, 6 Regrets, Pain, and Admiration. In a Word, it may be “ faid, as they are the Language of the Dumb, that they o contribute not a little to speak a Language common to all “ Nations, which is the Language of Painting. But to say « how these Parts must be dispos'd for expressing the various “ Paflions, is impoffible; nor can any exact Rules be given “ for it, both becaufe the Talk would be infinite, and be“ cause every one must be guided in this by his own Genius, " and the particular Turn of his own Studies.”

All that I have farther to add on this Leflon, is to tell you, that the Examples of the Passions, which are here set before you for your Imitation, are taken from the best Masters, and endeavoured to be contrafted in such a Manner as to heighten and set off each other, and engage you more agreeably in the Study of them.

LESSON

LESSON X.

On drawing Landskips, Buildings, &c.

0

F all the parts of Drawing, this is the most useful and

necessary, as it is what every Man may have occafion for at one time or another. To be able, on the Spot, as I observed before, to take the Sketch of a fine Building, or a beautiful Prospect ; of any curious Production of Art, or uncommon Appearance in Nature ; is not only a very desirable Accomplishment, but a very agreeable Amusement. Rocks, Mountains, Fields, Woods, Rivers, Cataracts, Cities, Towns, Castles, Houfes, Fortifications, Ruins, or whatsoever elle may present itself to View, on our Journies or Travels, in our own or foreign countries, may be thus brought home, and preserved for our future Use, either in Business or Conversation. On this part therefore I would have you bestow somewhat more than ordinary Pains; and I have reserved it to the last, that it may dwell the longest upon your Mind.

All Drawing consists in nicely measuring the Distances of each Part of your Piece by the Eye. In order to facilitate this, you are to imagine in your own Mind that the Piece you copy is divided into Squares. As for Example : Suppose or imagine a perpendicular and a horizontal Line crossing each other in the Center of the Picture you are drawing from : Then suppose also two such Lines crossing your own Copy. Observe in the Original what Parts of the Design those Lines intersect, and let them fall on the same Parts of the suppofed Lines in your Copy : I say the supposed Lines, because tho’ Engravers and others who copy with great Exactness, divide both the Copy and Original into many Squares, as in the Margin,

yet this is a Method I would have you endeavour to do without; as it will be apt to deceive the Learner, who will fancy himself a tolerable Proficient, till he comes to draw after Nature where these Helps are not to be had, when he will find himself miserably defective and utterly at a Loss.

If you are to draw a Landskip from Nature, take your Station on a rising Ground, where you will have a large Horizon; and mark your Tablet into three Divifions, downwards from the Top to the Bottom, and divide in your own Mind the Landskip you are to take, into three Divisions also. Then turn your face directly opposite to the Midst of the Horizon, heeping your Body fixed, and draw what is directly before your Eyes, upon the middle Division of your Tablet; then turn your Head, but not your Body, to the left Hand, and delineate what you view there, joining it properly to what you had done before; lastly, do the same by what is to be seen on your right Hand, laying down every thing exactly, both with respect to Distance and Proportion.

The best Artists of late, in drawing their Landskips, make them shoot away one Part lower than another. Those who make their Landskips mount up higher and higher, as if they stood at the Bottom of a Hill to take the Prospect, commit a great Error : The best Way is to get upon a rising Ground, make the nearest Objects in your Piece the highest, and those that are farther off, to shoot away lower and lower till they come almost level with the Line of the Horizon, leffening every Thing proportionably to its Distance, and observing also to make your objects fainter and less distinct, the farther they are removed from your Eye. Make all your Lights and Shades fall one Way; and let every Thing have its proper Motion, as Trccs shaken by the Wind, the small Boughs bending more, and the large ones less; Water agitated by the Wind, and dashing can ft Ships or Boats; or falling from a Precipice upon Rocks ali i ones, and spirting them up again into the Air, and sprinkling all about; Clouds also in the Air, now gathered with the Winds, now violently condensed into Hail, Rain, and the sike; always remembering that whatever Motions are caused by the Wind, must all be made to move the same way, because the Wind can blow but one Way at once.

If you intend to make any considerable Proficiency in this Part of Drawing, a Knowledge of Perspective is absolutely necefiary: But for the common Uses which in all Probability you will have to make of Drawing, a careful Imitation of the Examples here laid before you, and other good Prints and Drawings which you may procure, together with frequent Trials from rcal Obicats, fuch as Houles, Trees, Rocks, Ruins, and the like, will be fufficient ; and in a little Time enable you to make such Imitations of natural and artificial Objects, as will fully answer the Ends which a Gentleman can propose in learning the Art.

The End of the First Polume,

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