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ABBREVIATIONS

GWS..

GWS Sea....

GPW

GC

GPW 1929.

GWS 1929.

H. III...

Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Con

dition of the Wounded and Sick in Armed Forces in

the Field, 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condi

tion of the Wounded, Sick and Shipwrecked Members

of Armed Forces at Sea, 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Pris

oners of War, 12 Aug 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civil

ian Persons in Time of War, 12 August 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Treatment of Pris

oners of War, 27 July 1929. Geneva Convention for the Amelioration of the Condi

tion of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field,

27 July 1929.
Hague Convention No. III Relative to the Opening of

Hostilities, 18 October 1907.
Hague Convention No. IV Respecting the Laws and

Customs of War on Land, 18 October 1907.
Annex to Hague Convention No. IV, 18 October 1907,

H. IV...

HR

embodying the Regulations Respecting the Laws and

Customs of War on Land.
Hague Convention No. V Respecting the Rights and

Duties of Neutral Powers and Persons in Case of

War on Land, 18 October 1907.
Hague Convention No. IX Concerning Bombardment

by Naval Forces in Time of War, 18 October 1907. Hague Convention No. X for the Adaptation to Mari

time Warfare of the Principles of the Geneva Con

vention, 18 October 1907. Treaty on the Protection of Artistic and Scientific

Institutions and Historic Monuments, 15 April 1935. Uniform Code of Military Justice (64 Stat. 108; 50 U.S. C. 551-736).

H. V...

H. IX.

H. X...

Roerich Pact.

UCM)..

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*FM 27-10

FIELD MANUAL
No. 27-10

DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY
WASHINGTON 25, D. C., 18 July 1956

THE LAW OF LAND WARFARE

Page

3
12

15
17
17
19
22
23

25

war.

Paragraphs
CHAPTER 1. BASIC RULES AND PRINCIPLES
Section I. General..

1-14
II. Protecting Powers---

15-19
CHAPTER 2. HOSTILITIES
Section 1. Commencement of hostilities...

20-27
II. Forbidden conduct with respect to persons..

28-32
III. Forbidden means of waging warfare..

33–38
IV. Bombardments, assaults, and sieges.

39-47
V. Stratagems.-

48-55
VI. Treatment of property during combat..

56-59
CHAPTER 3. PRISONERS OF WAR
Section I. Persons entitled to be treated as prisoners of war;
retained medical personnel...

60–71
II. Persons not entitled to be treated as prisoners of

72-83
III. General protection of prisoners of war

84-92
IV. Beginning of captivity --

93–96
V. Internment of prisoners generally -

97-100
VI. Quarters, food, and clothing -

101-105
VII. Hygiene and medical attention...-

106-109
VIII. Religious, intellectual, and physical activities. 110–114
IX. Discipline.---

115-118
X. Rank of prisoners of war---

119-121
XI. Transfer of prisoners of war-

122-124
XII. Labor of prisoners of war.

125-133
XIII. Financial resources of prisoners of war, 134-144
XIV. Relations of prisoners of war with the exterior. 145-153
XV. Relations of prisoners of war and the authori-
ties...

154-157
XVI. Penal and disciplinary sanctions.--

158-184
XVII. Termination of captivity-

185-202
XVIII. Information bureaus and relief societies for pris-
oners of war.

203-207
CHAPTER 4. THE WOUNDED AND SICK
Section I. General provisions.--

31
34
37
39
40
42
44

45
46

47
48
51
55

60
62
72

79
Page

208-214
II. Wounded and sick...

215-219
III. Medical units, establishments, personnel and
transfers....

220–237
IV. The Red Cross emblem.....

238–245

83
84

87
95

*This manual supersedes FM 27-10, 1 October 1940, including C 1, 15 November 1944.

98

100

106
108
112

134

138
141
144
147
148
154
156

158

Paragraphs
CHAPTER 5. CIVILIAN PERSONS
Section 1. General provisions..

246-251
II. General protection of populations against cer-
tain consequences of war...

... 252-265
III. Provisions common to the territories of the

parties to the conflict and to occupied terri-
tories..

266-273
IV. Aliens in the territory of a party to the conflict. 274-285

V. Regulations for the treatment of internees --- 286–342
VI. Information bureaus, central agency, and relief
societies.--

343-350
CHAPTER 6. OCCUPATION
Section 1. General...

351-361
II. Administration of occupied territory--

362-378
III. Rights of the population of occupied territory- 379–387
IV. Relief...

388–392
V. Treatment of enemy property------- 393-417
VI. Services of inhabitants and of officials... 418-424
VII. Public finance...

425-431
VIII. Security of the occupant: penal legislation and
procedure.

432–448
CHAPTER 7. NONHOSTILE RELATIONS OF BELLIG-

ERENTS
Section I. General..

449–453
II. Military passports, safe-conducts, and safe-
guards.

165

454-457
III. Parlementaires.:

458-468
HTTS
IV. Cartels.

469
V. Capitulations -

- 470-478
VI. Armistices...

479–494
CHAPTER 8. REMEDIES FOR VIOLATION OF INTER-

NATIONAL LAW; WAR CRIMES
Section I. Remedies and reprisals.--

495–497
II. Crimes under international law.

498-504
III. Punishment of war crimes...

505-508
IV. Defenses not available...

509-511
CHAPTER 9. NEUTRALITY
Section 1. General...

512-521
II. Recruiting in neutral territory----

522-524
III. Supplies and services from neutral territory- 525–531
IV. Internment of belligerent forces and tending of

wounded and sick in neutral territory------ 532–546
Neutral persons...

547-551
VI. Railway material..

552
APPENDIX: INDEX OF ARTICLES OF THE 1949 GENEVA CON-

VENTIONS AND THE 1907 HAGUE CONVEN-

TIONS..
INDEX..

165
167
169
169
172

176
178
180
182

184
186
187

188
191
192

194
198

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1. Purpose and Scope

The purpose of this Manual is to provide authoritative guidance to military personnel on the customary and treaty law applicable to the conduct of warfare on land and to relationships between belligerents and neutral States. Although certain of the legal principles set forth herein have application to warfare at sea and in the air as well as to hostilities on land, this Manual otherwise concerns itself with the rules peculiar to naval and aerial warfare only to the extent that such rules have some direct bearing on the activities of land forces.

This Manual is an official publication of the United States Army. However, those provisions of the Manual which are neither statutes nor the text of treaties to which the United States is a party should not be considered binding upon courts and tribunals applying the law of war. However, such provisions are of evidentiary value insofar as they bear upon questions of custom and practice. 2. Purposes of the Law of War

The conduct of armed hostilities on land is regulated by the law of land warfare which is both written and unwritten. It is inspired by the desire to diminish the evils of war

a. Protecting both combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary suffering;

6. Safeguarding certain fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the hands of the enemy, particularly prisoners of war, the wounded and sick, and civilians; and

c. Facilitating the restoration of peace. 3. Basic Principles

a. Prohibitory Effect. The law of war places limits on the exercise of a belligerent's power in the interests mentioned in paragraph 2 and requires that belligerents refrain from employing any kind or degree of violence which is not actually necessary for military purposes and that they conduct hostilities with regard for the principles of humanity and chivalry.

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