« ПредыдущаяПродолжить »
The affected animals will be isolated, when possible, from the remainder of the herd until they can be properly appraised and slaughtered.
8. Quarantine restrictions once imposed are not to be removed by the State authorities without due notice to the proper officers of the Department of Agriculture.
9. The period of quarantine will be at least ninety days, dating from the removal of the last diseased animal from the herd. During this period no animal will be allowed to enter the herd or to leave it, and all animals in the herd will be carefully isolated from other cattle.
When possible, all infected herds are to be held in quarantine and not allowed to leave the infected premises except for slaughter. In this case fresh animals may be added to the herd at the owner's risk, but are to be considered as infected animals and subjected to the same quarantine regulations as the other members of the herd.
SLAUGHTER AND COMPENSATION. 10. All animals affected with contagious pleuro-pneumonia are to be slaughtered as soon after their discovery as the necessary arrangements can be made.
11. When diseased animals are reported to the State authorities, they shall promptly take such steps as they desire to confirm the diagnosis. The animals found diseased are then to be appraised according to the provisions of the State law, and the proper officer of the Bureau of Animal Industry (who will be designated by the Commissioner of Agriculture) notified of the appraisement. If this representative of the Bureau of Animal Industry confirms the diagnosis and approves the appraisement, the Department of Agriculture will purchase the diseased animals of the owner and pay, such a proportion of the appraised value as is provided for compensation in such cases by the laws of the State in which the animals are located when they are condemned and slaughtered by State authority,
DISINFECTION. 12. All necessary disinfection will be conducted by the employés of the Bureau of Animal Industry.
INOCULATION. 13. Inoculation is not recommended by the Department of Agriculture, and it is believed that its adoption with animals that are to be afterwards sold to go into other herds would counteract the good results which would otherwise follow from the slaughter of the diseased animals. It will not be practiced in this State.
The co-operation of governors, of State live stock commissions, and of other officers who may be in charge of the branch of the service provided for the control of the contagious diseases of animals in the States where pleuro-pneumonia exists, is earnestly requested under these rules and regulations, which have been framed with a view of securing uniform and efficient action throughout the whole infected district. It is hoped that with a vigorous enforcement of such regulations the disease may be prevented from extending beyond its present limits, and may be in time entirely eradicated.
NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner of Agriculture. WASHINGTON, D. C., August 2, 1886.
By virtue of the authority imposed upon me as governor of the State of Illinois I hereby accept the above rules and regulations, and the proper officers of this State will co-operate with the United States Department of Agriculture for their enforcement.
RICHARD J. OGLESBY. SPRINGFIELD, ILL., September 27, 1886.
The Department has not purchased diseased animals for slaughter in Illinois, because the law of that State makes it the duty of the live-stock commissioners to slaughter such animals at once without compensation. With this law on the statute-books of the State, and with no apparent reason why it should not be enforced, it was not “essential to prevent the spread of pleuro-pneumonia from one State into another” that any part of the appropriation should be used in Illinois to purchase diseased animals for slaughter. This conclusion was confirmed by the desirability of adopting only such measures as conform with the statutes of the States in which the work is being done, so long as our only authority to enforce regulations within the States must be obtained from State legislation.
PROGRESS OF CO-OPERATION WITH OTHER INFECTED STATES.
Co-operation with the other infected States has not progressed as satisfactorily as was anticipated. In the latter part of July a conference was held in Philadelphia, at which were present the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, and representatives of the States of New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and Maryland. In formulating the rules and regulations for co-operation as much consideration was given for the views expressed at that conference as was consistent with the object that was to be accomplished. It was understood at the time that the four States there represented would cooperate with this Department under any reasonable rules and regulations.
Rules and regulations were issued on August 2, and sent to the governors of the interested States for their acceptance. With the exception of the following rules, which were omitted or changed in the case of Illinois, they were identical with those given above as accepted by that State:
6. To insure a perfect and satisfactory quarantine, a chain fastened with a numbered lock will be placed around the horns, or with hornless animals around the neck, and a record will be kept showing the number of the lock placed upon each animal in the herd.
7. The locks and chains will be furnished by the Department of Agriculture, but they will become the property of the State in which they are used, in order that any one tampering with them can be proceeded against legally for injuring or embezzling the property of the State.
8. Quarantine restrictions once imposed are not to be removed by the State author. ities without the consent of the proper officers of the Department of Agriculture.
INOCULATION. 13. Inoculation is not recommended by the Department of Agriculture, and it is believed that its adoption with animals that are to be afterwards sold to go into other herds would counteract the good results which would otherwise follow from the slaughter of the diseased animals. It may, however, be practiced by State authorities under the following rules:
14. No herds but those in which pleuro-pneumonia has appeared are to be inoculated.
15. Inoculated herds are to be quarantined with lock and chain on each animal; the quarantine restrictions are to remain in force so long as any inoculated cattle survive, and these animals are to leave the premises only for immediate slaughter.
16. Fresh animals are to be taken into inoculated herds only at the risk of the owner, and shall be subject to the same rules as the other cattle of the inoculated herd.
17. The Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry is to be promptly notified by the State authorities of each herd inoculated, of the final disposition of each member of the herd, of the post mortem appearances, and of any other facts in the history of the herd which may prove of value.
The State of New York was not represented at the conference, as the State veterinarian, Prof. James Law, was then attending to some business in the Western States. After returning, however, he gavo it as his opinion that, with the large number of infected herds known to exist on Long Island and in the city of New York and vicinity, it would be unwise to attempt to control the plague with the present small appropriation.
The governor of New Jersey has not accepted the rules, and it appears that the obstacles to co-operation were Rules 8 and 15. The objection to Rule 8 was removed by an offer from this Department to change the reading from “without the consent of the proper officers
H. Mis, 156_2
of the Department of Agriculture” to “without due notice to the proper officers of the Department of Agriculture." This concession was also made to the State of Illinois, but the experience of the last four months leads me to the opinion that it would be wiser for the Department to adhere to the original reading. State authorities often have very different ideas from those entertained by the officers of this Department as to the time when it is safe to remove quarantine restrictions. They consequently object to restrictions which they cannot remove at will. On the other hand, if the National Government appropriates money to pay the expense of this work, there certainly should be some guarantee that the proper regulations are enforced.
The objection to Rule 15 still stands in the way of co-operation with New Jersey. The State authorities have adopted the practice of inoculation, and release the inoculated herds from quarantine after a short period of isolation. After carefully considering the question and all the scientific evidence bearing upon it, I am of the opinion that it is useless to attempt to eradicate pleuro-pneumonia in States where inoculation is practiced and where inoculated animals are afterwards allowed to mingle with the cattle of other herds. The money expended for the purchase of diseased animals for slaughter under such conditions is consequently largely wasted.
The State authorities of New Jersey, however, have been assisted by employing one or more veterinarians nearly the whole time, whose duty it has been to investigate reported outbreaks of disease and give such aid as was needed in inspection and in enforcing the State quarantine regulations. Thirty-one infected herds have been reported from this State, containing 530 animals, of which 42 were diseased.
The governor of Pennsylvania has also failed to accept these rules and regulations. His reasons for not acting on them are unknown to me. The governor's agent in charge of the pleuro-pneumonia work raised some objections to Rule 15, but admitted that its enforcement would make no great difference to the State. Inoculation is practiced by the Pennsylvania authorities also, but with the small number of outbreaks reported it would certainly be advisable to slaughter all diseased and exposed animals and thus rid the State of the plague at once.
Virginia is the only remaining State infected with pleuro-pneumonia where the authorities have not accepted the rules and regulations. The attention of the governor has been called to the desirability of eradicating the disease from the State, but up to the present time he has taken no action.
The governors of Delaware and Maryland have accepted the rules and regulations as issued, without modification of any kind.
No cases of pleuro-pneumonia have been reported from Delaware since such acceptance.
Co-operation with authorities of the State of Maryland has been more satisfactory than with those of any other State. The local laws are good, and the work has been very largely in the hands of the Inspectors of this Department. The number of infected herds reported from this State is 196, containing 2,277 animals, of which 705 were diseased. Dr. Wray, the Inspector who has been in charge of the work in Maryland since September 20, reported under date of December 7 that since the former date 122'herds, containing 1,354 animals, had been put in quarantine, and that 92 herds, containing 1,089 animals, were still held under such restrictions. Since July i this Department has purchased and slaughtered in Maryland 308 diseased cattle, for which $7,069 was paid, being an average of about $23 per head.
In Maryland the quarantine has been made very efficient by placing a chain, fastened with a numbered lock, around the horns, or, with hornless cattle, around the neck of every exposed animal. This has prevented the substitution of one animal for another, and it has also led to the prompt detection of any quarantined cattle which have been allowed to stray beyond the boundaries of the infected premises. The sick animals have been promptly slaughtered, and it is believed that the good effects of this work are already seen in the decreased number of new herds infected. In a number of cases where infected herds have been of unusual danger to surrounding cattle this Department has purchased and destroyed the sick animals, and the State has then condemned and slaughtered the remainder of the herd, thus entirely eradicating the disease at once. Unfortunately the State appropriation has not been large enough to do this in as many cases as seemed desirable.
No recent investigations have been made in Pennsylvania. The governor's agent, Mr. T. J. Edge, reports that during the year ending November 30, 1886, 128 diseased animals were condemned and slaughtered.
LESIONS FOUND IN AMERICAN PLEURO-PNEUMONIA.
Many persons who have not had an opportunity for the post-mortem examination of animals affected with pleuro-pneumonia, have expressed doubts regarding the nature of the disease in this country, some considering it to be tuberculosis, while others have gone so far as to speak of it as blood poisoning with abscesses of the lungs. To make it clear that the disease in America is identical with the pleuropneumonia of Europe, and that the lung lesions are neither the result of tubercles nor abscesses, plates X, XI, and XII have been prepared from actual specimens of lungs encountered in the outbreaks previously referred to. Plate X is a drawing of a lung from a steer belonging to Mr. Nels Morris that died in the Phoenix distillery stables at Chicago. The lung was photographed and the photograph colored in Chicago, and the plate was made by Dr. Marx, the Department artist, from this colored photograph. Plates XI and XII were made direct from fresh specimens removed from the carcasses of cows slaughtered in Baltimore. Plate XI shows an early stage of a very acute attack, in which the lesions consist of distension of the interlobular connective tissue with lymph, infarction of a portion of the lobules, and pleuritis, with a great abundance of false membranes. Plates X and XII show more advanced cases in which the lung is completely hepatized, different lobules showing different stages of inflammation, the spaces of the inter-lobular connective tissue being filled with lymph and the pleura greatly thickened. These lungs presented no appearance whatever of tubercles or abscesses, which is true of nearly all lungs we have examined in acute attacks of this disease.
INVESTIGATIONS OF SWINE DISEASES. In view of the results of investigations which have shown the existence of two distinct infectious diseases in swine, perhaps of equal virulence and distribution, a change in the nomenclature becomes necessary in order to avoid any confusion in the future. Since these two diseases have been considered as one in the past, and the names swine-plague and hog-cholera have been applied indiscriminately, we prefer to retain both names, with a more restricted meaning, using the name hog-cholera for the disease described in the last report as swine-plague, which is produced by a motile bacterium, and applying the name swine-plague to the other disease, the chief seat of which is in the lungs. This change is the more desirable since recent investigations have shown that the latter disease exists in Germany, where it is called swine-plague (Schweineseuche).
INVESTIGATIONS OF HOG-CHOLERA. Some additional biological facts concerning the bacterium which produces the disease. - In the second annual report of the Bureau and the Annual Report of the Department for 1885, the bacterium of hog cholera was quite minutely described, so that no one acquainted with bacteriological investigations would find it difficult to recognize it when found. The descriptions of size, shape, and mode of staining referred to cover-glass preparations made from the blood and the internal organs directly. These characters change somewhat when the bacterium is cultivated in artificial media. Thus the bacteria grown upon potato vary slightly in size and appearance from those obtained from meat infusions and from nutrient gelatine. On the other hand, their appearance is the same whether the spleen of mice, rabbits, guinea-pigs, or swine be subjected to microscopic examination.
The microbe was characterized as a motile bacterium 1.2 to 1.5 micromillimeters long and .6 micromillimeter broad, growing readily in neutralized and even slightly acid meat infusions, milk, on potato, and gelatine which is not liquefied. During the past year the bacterium has been studied very carefully, with a view to determine the best means of preventing its multiplication, and thus preventing the spread of the disease itself. The conclusions arrived at are given in full below, but will be summarized from a practical point of view in the chapter on prevention.
Growth of the bacterium in simple hay infusion.—This was prepared by allowing finely cut hay to soak in water for three or four days, filtering off the amber liquid and sterilizing. Two tubes were inoculated with a drop from cultures in meat-infusion peptone at different times. In both the following features were observed: There was a slight turbidity within two days, which did not deepen perceptibly. The bacteria were somewhat larger than in more nutritive liquids. In the shorter forms there could be seen at each extremity more refrangent spherical masses, while the central portions of the rod seemed empty. Longer rods contained three or four of these bodies. When stained they appeared darker than the rest of the rod. They were consequently not spores, but very probably masses of protoplasm, which had contracted into these globules, and which indicated a degeneration of the bacteria. There were also forms present which were beaded, club-shaped, and distorted.
Though the acid hay infusion is not a suitable medium, yet the bacterium of hog-cholera evidently multiplies in it to some extent, and we may infer that in