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the cattle industry of the most serious character. Fortunately the managers of the Union Stock Yards have adopted stringent regulations which prevent the admission of any animals from Cook County, and, consequently, the traffic through these yards has been protected since the presence of the plague was discovered.
While the existence of the disease in the distillery stables has attracted much attention because of the number of animals affected and exposed, it does not deserve the attention there that it does among the cows of the owners of small herds about the city. In the distilleries the cattle can be easily quarantined and guarded, and as all are intended for slaughter within a comparatively short time there is neither the difficulty nor the expense which would be encountered in disposing of the same number of animals in any other situation. The exposed animals outside of the distilleries are, therefore, of much greater interest to the country, and immediate measures are needed to crush out the contagion which is being propagated among them. This Department has not sufficient authority or funds to accomplish this, but it was hoped that with the co-operation of the State Live Stock Commission this end might be speedily reached. Unfortunately the State Commission appear disinclined to take rigorous action in reference to the city cows, and also differ with us as to the measures which it is necessary to enforce.
Maryland was the first State to accept the rules and regulations of this Department for co-operation, and owing to the well-known prevalence of the disease there, work was begun almost immediately. The inspectors have examined 1,221 different lots of cattle during the year, containing 11,722 individual animals. Of these 219 lots were found infocted, and 652 animals were reported as affected with pleuro-pneumonia. The appropriation for slaughtering sick animals did not become available until July 1, 1886. For the six months ending December 31, 1886, the Department purchased and slaughtered in this State 336 animals affected with contagious pleuro-pneumonia.
From the information at hand we judge that the prevalence of this disease has not been materially modified in the other infected States since previous reports were made.
The investigations of swine diseases during the current year have yielded very important results. It has been shown that there are really two diseases of swine, both of which are widely distributed and both communicable, which have not heretofore been distinguished from each other. Although these two diseases may co-exist at the same time and in the same herd, they are often found separate, and have very different characters. This discovery was foreshadowed in the two previous reports of the Bureau, in one of which the bacterium causing swine-plague was described as a micrococcus and in the other as a bacterium. Our subsequent investigations have demonstrated that each of these germs produces a distinct disease, and in order to distinguish between them we call the micrococcus disease swine-plague, and the bacterium disease hog-cholera.
The investigations of the year abundantly confirm the important discovery, announced in the report for 1885, that the pathogenic germs produce, during their multiplication in culture tubes, a chemical substance which may be used to produce immunity from that particular contagion. This discovery opens a most promising field for investigation, and it indicates that in the future we shall be able to prevent the contagious diseases of both animals and people by the administration of harmless chemical compounds. It will require a long series of investigations, however, to learn how to separate these chemical compounds from the other substances in the culture liquids, to determine their chemical composition and the best methods of producing them artificially.
The experiments which have been made to bring out the characters of the germs of these diseases and the most active disinfectants for their destruction, are of great interest and value from a practical point of view, and when completed will give accurate information of the means that can be employed in combating them.
For the careful and accurate manner in which the experiments referred to above have been carried out, I am indebted to Dr. Theobald Smith, director of the laboratory, and to Dr. F. L. Kilborne, director of the experiment station, both of whom have shown the most commendable activity and interest in the work, and whose intelligence and zeal have enabled us to satisfactorily decide some of the most difficult questions which modern science has been called upon to elucidate.
In addition to the report of the Chief of the Bureau, this volume contains a very important report by Col. H. M. Taylor, agent of the Bureau of Animal Industry, on “The condition of the range cattle industry;" a valuable report by Edward W. Perry “On the cattle trade and allied industries of Michigan, Wisconsin, and Tennessee;" and a most interesting report by Mr. A. S. Mercer on “The cattle industry of California.” Those papers, in connection with George W. Rust's excellent monograph on "Calf raising on the plains;" and the letter of the Commissioner of Agriculture on the “Dressed meat traffic,” make a notable contribution to our knowledge of the great cattle industry of the United States.
The "Investigation of the Loco' plant and its effect on animals," by Dr. M. Stalker, and also the investigation of “Staggers" among horses, by Dr. William H. Harbaugh, will be of much interest in the localities where these troubles abound.
To the above has been appended copies of the laws bearing upon animal diseases which have been passed by the legislatures of the several States since the publication of the last report. A knowledge of these laws has become indispensable to those engaged in shipping stock from one State to another. The details of the cattle inspections conclude the volume and are given in full. Respectfully submitted.
D. E. SALMON,
Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry. Hon. NORMAN J. COLMAN,
Commissioner of Agriculture.
THIRD ANNUAL REPORT OF THE BUREAU OF
REPORT OF THE CHIEF OF THE BUREAU.
SIR: As the investigation and suppression of contagious pleuropneumonia or lung plague of cattle is made by the law establishing the Bureau the most prominent and important part of its work, I shall, as heretofore, devote the first section of my report to this subject.
PROGRESS OF PLEURO-PNEUMONIA AND ACTION TAKEN IN RE
GARD TO IT.
KENTUCKY. At the time my last annual report was submitted the outbreak of pleuro-pneumonia in Kentucky, which began in 1884, was still in progress. A portion of the history of this outbreak is recorded in the reports of the Bureau of Animal Industry for 1884 and 1885. When first discovered the plague was confined to one herd. There was an attempt to maintain
quarantine by the force of public opinion in the absence of any specific statutes, but, as was to be expected, it was not successful. The danger of the extension of the contagion was such that, on June 15, 1885, the infected premises were declared in quarantine by authority of the State board of health. At that time an additional herd was found infected and included in the regulations, a copy of which will be found on page 35 of the Report of the Bureau of Animal Industry for 1885. By request of the board, an inspector of the Bureau was stationed at Cynthiana to watch the results of this quarantine. November 16, 1885, he reported that the disease had been found at 6 places in Cynthiana, at 3 places in the Indian Creek neighborhood, 34 miles east of Cynthiana, and at one place near the Pendleton County line, 13 miles north of Cynthiana.
Early in March, 1886, the legislature of Kentucky enacted a law authorizing the State board of health to slaughter the infected cattle, and appropriated money to compensate the owners. The slaughter began on March 15, and on March 27 I received official notification that all exposed animals had been slaughtered. I give below a copy of a letter from the secretary of the board to the Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, which shows his estimate of the value of the services rendered by this Department in suppressing the malady:
BOWLING GREEN, Ky., March 27, 1886. SIR: I have the honor to inform you, as Dr. Wray has done in detail, that in the execution of the recently enacted law in relation to contagious and infectious diseases of cattle this board has exterminated contagious pleuro-pneumonia in this State by the slaughter of all animals which have been exposed to that disease and rigidly quarantined all infected premises.
In consequence of the foregoing facts, we hope to have the influence of your Department in securing the removal of the restrictions now imposed against Kentucky cattle by most of the Western States.
I desire also to call your attention to the inclosed resolution in regard to Dr. Wray, and to add that there is every reason to believe that but for the timely and efficient aid rendered me by your Department during the last year the disease would have made such headway, and the sum of money required for its extirpation would have been so large, that our legislature could not have been induced to extirpate the dis
I inclose a copy of our law and quarantine blanks.
J. N. MCCORMACK,
Secretary. Chief of the Bureau of Animal Industry, Washington, D. C. Resolved, That the thanks of the State board of health of Kentucky be, and are hereby, tendered to Dr. W. H. Wray for the faithful, efficient, and intelligent manner in which he has discharged his important duties in the management of the outbreak of contagious pleuro-pneumonia in Harrison County. A true extract from the proceedings of the board.
J. N. MOCORMACK, Secretary. Dr. Wray furnished the following statement, showing the number of infected herds and animals in the vicinity of Cynthiana, and the results of the disease at each place:
Previous to August 4, 1885, four animals in the Frisbie & Lake herd had died and 14 sick ones had been slaughtered. From and after August 4 the extent of the dis-. ease and the disposition of the animals is seen in the following table: