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unprecedented resources and a nationwide urgency In the meantime, the FBI has been

unable to rule out the possibility that respondent is somehow linked to, or possesses

knowvicdge of, ticieroost altacks on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon To protori

ibe public, the FBI must exhaust all avenues of investigatiou while ensuring that critica!

informatior. docs not evaporate pending further investigation.

! declare imde penalty of perjury thai the forcgoing, is true and correu Exco con

0c0bct 11, 2001, in Washington, D.C.

کے بیر کرده

Michael E. Rolince
Sector. Chief
Interestincal Terongro Operzicns Section
Ccuterterrorism. Divisio);
Federa' Burtau of Investigation

UNITED STATES: PRESUMPTION OF GUILT

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

This report was written by Cesar Muñoz Acebes, a Bloomberg fellow, based on research by Muñoz Acebes and Allison Collins, associate director for the U.S. Program at Human Rights Watch Jamie Fellner. US program director edited the report James Ross, senior legal advisor. provided legal review. Jonathan Horowitz and Alison Hughes provided rescarch and production support,

We are grateful to the many individuals and their lawvers who were willing to speak with us as part of our research. We also wish to thank the Open Society Institute and the Atlantic Philanthropies for the funding that supported the rescarch and production of this report and Michacl Bloomberg for underunting the Bloomberg Fellowship

Human Rights Watch

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world.

We stand with victims and activists to bring offenders to justice, to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom and to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable

We challenge goverments and those holding power to end abusive practices and respect international human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all

The staff includes Kenneth Roth, executive director. Michele Alexander, developinent director: Rory Mungoven, advocacy director. Carroll Bogert, communications director, John T. Green, operations director. Barbara Guglicimo, finance director, Lotte Leicht. Brussels office director, Stcvc Crawshaw, London office director, Patrick Minges, publications director, Maria Pignataro Nielsen, human resources director, Joc Saunders, acting program director, Wilder Taylor, legal and policy director, and Joanna Weschler, United Nations representative. Jonathan Fanton is the chair of the board. Robert L. Bemstein is the founding chair

Web Site Address: http://www.hrw.org Listserv address: To subscribe to the list, send an e-mail message to how-news-subscribe aige topica.com with 'subscribe hrw-news in the body of the message (leave the subjcci linc blank)

Human Rights Watch is dedicated to protecting the human rights of people around the world. We stand with victims and activists to prevent discrimination, to uphold political freedom, to protect people from inhumane conduct in wartime, and to bring offenders to justice.

We investigate and expose human rights violations and hold abusers accountable.

We challenge governments and those who hold power to end abusive practices and respect interational human rights law.

We enlist the public and the international community to support the cause of human rights for all.

Human Rights Watch
350 Fifth Avenue 34 Floor
New York, N.Y. 10118-3299
http://www.hrw.org

REPORT, HUMAN RIGHTS WATCH, “THE ROAD TO ABU GHRAIB,” JUNE 2004

The Road to Abu Ghraib

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Introduction .....
I. A Policy to Evade International Jaw.

Circumventing the Gencva Conventions..
Undermining the Rules Against Torture.
Ronditions.

“Disappearances”.
II. Guantánamo: America's “Black Holc”.
III. Afghanistan: Impunity for Systematic Abuse.
IV. Iraq: Applying Counter-Terrorism Tactics during a Military Occupation.....
Cases under Investigation ......

Camp Bucca...
Abed Hamed Mowhoush
Karim 'Abd al-Jalil....

Vagin Sadoon Hatah..
Reports of Abusc Ignored.

Guantánamu meets Afghanistan at Abu Ghrail) Acknowledgements..

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Introduction

Since late April 2004, when the first photographs appeared of L.S. military personnel humiliating, torturing, and othcruise mistrcating detainees at Abu Ghraib pason in Iraq, the United States government has repeatedly sought to portray the abuse as an isolated incident, the work of a few “bad apples” acting without orders. On May 4, U.S. Secretary of Defense Donald II Rumsfeld, in a formulation that would be used over and over again by U.S. officials, described the abuses at Abu Ghraib as “an exceptional, isolated" case. In a nationally televised address on May 24, President George W. Bush spoke of "disgraceful conduct by a few American troops who dishonored our country and disregarded our values.”

In fact, the only exceptional aspect of the abuse at Abu Ghraib may have been that it was photographed. Detainees in C.S. custody in Afghanistan have testified that they experienced treatment similar to what happened in Abu Ghraib -- from beatings to prolonged sleep and sensory deprivation to being held naked -- as early as 2002. Comparable -- and, indeed, more extreme cases of torture and inhuman treatment have been extensively documented by the International Committee of the Red Cross and by journalists at numerous locations in Iraq outside Abu Ghraib.

This pattern of abuse did not result from the acts of individual soldiers who broke the rules. It resulted from decisions made by the Bush administration to bend, ignore, or cast rules aside. Administration policies created the climate for Abu Ghraib in three fundamental ways.

First, in the aftermath of the September 11 attacks on the Lnited States, the Bush administration seemingly determined that winning the war on terror required that the United States circumvent international law. Senior administration lawyers in a series of internal memos argued over the objections of career military and State Department counsel that the new war against terrorism rendered “obsolete” long-standing legal restrictions on the treatment and interrogation of detainees.

The administration effectively sought to re-write the Geneva Conventions of 1949 tu eriscerate many of their most important protections. These include the rights of all detainees in an armed conflict to be free from humiliating and degrading treatment, as well as froin torture and other forms of coercive interrogation. The Pentagon and the

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