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too much like that of the chorus of a Greek play to be popular with the masses ; and Mr. Arnold will never be the poet of the average drawingroom.

Here is a specimen of what we may term Matthew Arnold's "cry":"The active politician can hardly get on without deferring to clap-trap and even employing it. Nay, as Socrates amusingly said, the man who defers to clap-trap and the man who uses his intelligence are, when they meet in the struggle of active politics, like a doctor and a confectioner competing for the suffrages of a constituency of schoolboys; the confectioner has nearly every point in his favour. The confectioner deals in all that the constituency like; the doctor is a man who hurts them, and makes them leave off what they like and take what is disagreeable. And, accordingly, the temptation, in dealing with the public and with the trade of active politics, the temptation to be a confectioner is extremely strong, and we see that almost all our leading newspapers and leading politicians do, in fact, yield to it."

When a man sees that humbugs have to be kept up by reason of the preference of the majority for the worse over the better, he has choice between cynicism and faith, and in deciding between the two, there is often a trying time; a struggle between faith and despair.

It may be the wavering lights and shadows of this struggle that frighten away the timid religionists from Mr. Arnold ; but his doubts are, we cannot but say it, vastly nobler and more spiritual and closer to true worship than much of that conformity which men have agreed to call by the unsuitable name of faith. Faith in the old sense, is the free spiritual instinct, the being “in love" with God even though afar off ; what goes for faith to-day is often hackneyed make-belief. To pierce this humbug even with the lance of doubts is to do no harm.

Mr. Arnold has indeed found the only key that will unlock the secrets of all true theology. Even inspired teachers may have fallen into intellectual fancifulness, they may have been narrow, mistaken, prejudiced, local; but they were "in love;" and those that would get at their true spirit must discard their mere nomenclature, their formal mould, and learn of them by being “in love” too.

That Mr. Arnold is not an idealist only, but as kindly natured in matters practical as he is amusing in companionship or sparkling in criticism, we had occasion to know when engaged upon this paper. An artisan poet with a true lyric gift, delicate health, and a wife and family to keep, told us how once, not long ago, when things were so bad with him that his children were asking for bread, Matthew Arnold sent such. timely and generous supplies as brought grateful tears to the eyes of the recipients, and interesting himself in their case got a subscription started for the poor fellow; all was so delicately done that the mention of Matthew Arnold's name brings out a sincere God bless-him in that family.

Mr. Arnold in his inaugural address from the Poetry Chair of Oxford, quoted the loving admonition of the Buddha to his disciple:-“Go then, having been delivered, deliver; having been consoled, console ; being arrived thyself at the farther bank, enable others to arrive there also.” Mr. Arnold strives bravely so to let his light shine forth before men; it is our deepest regret that we have to feel that his deliverance is of one not yet delivered himself, his consolation of one not wholly consoled, his helping hand the very kindly hand of one yet buffeting the mid stream. Perhaps, after all, it is not the less a help on that account.

The importance of such works as Mr. Arnold's latest is enhanced by the fact of their proceeding from one well versed in the traditions, and we may fairly regard them as sign-posts on the ways of coming thought, especially when we remember that they are the work of an author who has not only fully attained years of discretion, but is reaching that maturity both in years and in experience which may claim to be wisdom's appropriate time. We have named the date of Mr. Arnold's birth; he will be found to have completed fifty-five years on the Christmas Eve we have just passed, and as he is of a constitution of no common vigour (we wish he had not given us that pet phrase of his, “vigour and rigour,” which most inapplicably haunts the mind), we may hope to see much philosophic fruit gathered from him during the next twenty years. It is a long time to look forward to, a short time to look back upon. The grounds of theological discussion in times of intellectual high pressure like these, shift appreciably in briefer periods than twenty years. We can see entirely new elements on the horizon; we shall watch most earnestly Mr. Arnold's relation to them now that he has entered into such a field, for his presence is that of a man who is at least awake.




" ONCE invent printing," says matters are, the Library of the Carlyle, "you metamorphosed all British Museum and other large Universities, or superseded them! organised libraries, are in a sense The true University of these days universities—universities of is a collection of books." The ference. But they do not merely thought is clearly stated, but it consist of accumulated books, seems to contain a flaw. Univer- they books administered sality does not necessarily include by officials able to aid by bibliothe concentration implied in the graphical knowledge, and resorted word university; it may be but to by persons af full age, bent on vague chaos; the one is indefinite special pursuits, and possessed expansion, the other is definite in- already of sufficient signposts, so corporation. The smallest Literary that they can indeed make of the Institution in working, with its library all the university of learnlectures, its School of Art, its ing that they want. But to suporganised Reading Club, nay, the pose with Carlyle that the invention humblest Trades Union, has a of printing has disestablished better historic and logical right universities, would be like saying to be described as a university that because grapes grow a garthan the Library of the British dener is a superfluity. Mr. Carlyle Museum itself; and this is so filled is so pre-eminently removed from with the results of the invention belief in things managing them. of printing that, as has been well selves without living rule, that it said, it represents a larger aggre- is singular to find him evolving gate of human industry than the a fallacy such as would lie in the most renowned of the great cities of argument: Because there are herbs the world. But a person seeking and flowers, people learn botany. education might enter it, and if Because there are flowers, people he had no instructors, pass years learn to pluck them at random; therein without profit, finding at would be reasoning of a moru last that he had lost his way general truth; and until the among dreary deserts of inferior

former argument can be made to literature, from which a word of take its place, we may defer the direction would have saved him. consideration of the question The man, on the other hand, who whether libraries will over superis fresh from Carlyle's despised sede universities, University, might indeed, without Any library may be made the further guidance make of the nucleus of a university of grown Library, together with himself, a men, but they must have some university of power ; but without common objects to bind them a centre or centres round which to together, or they cannot rightly accrete itself, “the chaos of that bear the name. The British MuLibrary." would be great. As seum Library might, as we have


said, bear in a qualified sense the ment into one head of the whole, title of the University of Refer- of the effects.

In addition to being the The next step is that persons by consulting room of writers and incorporation may form an univerthinkers of all classes, it is also sity. At Rome were found corpothe convenient resort of journalists, rate bodies, or universities, of and the field of labour of a small bakers, tax-farmers, scribes, and army of heraldic copyists and others. In our own country, in draughtsmen. The Heralds' Col- the charters of ancient boroughs, lege is not a very dread institution may be found terms denominative in nineteenth century life, but it of the trades guilds, as the Univerwould be inclined to shew its sity of Smiths, the University of teeth at least in laughter-if the Tailors. It is to this we referred British Museum Library took the when saying that a Trades Union title of University of Arms on of the present day had a better account of its stores of heraldic historic right to the title University books, and the plodding use made than an accumulation of books. of them. The function of a library The word “university " does not is to contain books available for occur in the present Authorised readers; the function of a univer- Version of the Bible, but in sity is all its own and a widely Wiclif's we find it (James iii. different one.

5, 6): It is quite true that great So also the tunge is but a litel changes have been taking place membre, and reisith greet thinges. which peculiarly affect universities. Lo hou litil fier brenneth a ful The wide dissemination of litera- greet wood ? and oure tunge is ture which has followed printing fier, the unyuersitee of wickidnesse.” has raised up masses of students Here the word evidently means as untouched by the influence of head-quarters, and is, perhaps, a existing universities as the huge better rendering of the original classes of workers, formed since than the

present translation, the break up of feudal life, are " world,” which does not quite so untouched by any influence of a fully convey the notion of cenmaster born; as opposed, that is trality. In the following (Chaucer, to say, to a master at will, or by Boecius, b. v.) the word is not quite contract.

so strictly employed, but stands Before discussing how far old for " universe :". “Reason surprestige may have departed, or mounteth imaginacion, aud comprewhat might lead to access of new hendeth by vniuersall lokyng, the power, we may briefly examine common speache, but the iye of inthe term “university

» itself, as

telligence is higher, for it surits meaning is not too well known. mounteth the enuironnyng of the

The word universitas" is found vniuersitie, and looketh ouer that, both in pure Latin and law Latin. by pure subtilitie of thought.” Cicero speaks of mankind, viewed In the following from Strype as a whole, or a oneness, in the (Eccles. Mem. Hen. VIII., An. phrase universitas generis humani. 1530) we find the term used in a Unity and universality combined broad but technical sense, as a make up the idea of the words centre of universal knowledge :: uriversitas rerum. With the jurists " As it resembled a royal court the whole of a property, as con- in regard of those many

noblemen trasted with its parts, is universitas and persons of quality that lived bonorum, the university, or gather- in it, so one might esteem it an

university, for those many accom- women, not only as graduates, but plished men in all kinds of know- as lecturers. The nineteenth cenledge and good learning that were tury is but returning to an old ideal. his domesticks."

The universities in the fourteenth And yet in the seventeenth cen- century were the advocates of the tury we still find the word used in right of private judgment in the acthe sense of universe (Dr. H. ceptation of theological dogma, and More, Psyches Bios I. 13) :

in the sixteenth century the Paris

Parliament adjudged the UniverThe great womb From whence all things in the univer

sity to be a secular and not an

ecclesiastical corporation. As the sity Yclad in divers forms do gaily bloom,

universities flourished, the monasAnd after fade away.

teries correspondingly degenerated.

In their earliest days uniIn the following (Barrow's Serm. versities fulfilled two functions: II. 12) we see the effect of the their lecturers attracted students Latin usage:

unable otherwise to gain learning; "That thou givest them (saith the lecturers themselves found a the Psalmist, speaking with re- congenial seat of thought and spect to the university of things,) a mutual protection in being they gather.”

together. Crowds of students A university, which once was gathered round, and by their understood to denote any definite poverty-for the student of old class or incorporation of persons,

time was notoriously poor-at-such as a number of churches tracted the benefactions of genunited under the superintendence erous and wealthy persons, and of one archdeacon, or a body of found free board and lodging in canons at one cathedral—came by the inns

the inns that began to cluster degrees to be limited to such as round the lecture-rooms. Some comprised the members of a general of these inns aimed, no doubt, school or place of study. It was

like the monasteries, at being as not universality that was taught, far as possible self-supporting. but what teaching there was was

One of the colleges at Cambridge given freely to all. The corpora

has still its kitchen-garden. tion mostly comprised not the Lectures were at first desultory, teachers only, but also the stu- for teachers were rare. An Alcuin, dents; the qualifying words of an Anselm, or an Abelard would " masters and scholars” being un- draw great crowds of students, and derstood to follow the word univer- to themselves rather than to an sity. Universities, as we now know institution. Doctor, Master, Prothe word, were not theological in fessor,---each term

intheir origin, but literary, being discriminately borne by the mainly due to the upspringing of

teachers. Afterwards the term intellectual life in the twelfth and Master became applied to teachers thirteenth centuries. There was

in Arts, while the Doctor was a an early struggle on the question teacher of Law, Medicine, or of the morality of pagan literature, Theology. but the most ancient part of the As learning progressed, and University of Paris was its faculty benefactions enriched the schools, of arts or philosophy, whence its the necessity of organisation begraduates took the name of artistæ.

Faculties were One of the oldest universities, that

came manifest.

established, bodies of teachers on of Bologna, gave admission to special subjects who, besides


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