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university has to comfort the men completion of religion. This of mind by bringing order and ful- being the case, it is evident that ness into philosophy; it is a thought either the University or the Church centre from which should emanate must be dictator; and the Church rays tending to cancel cloudy chaos being vastly the larger power, by shewing how large is the overwhelmed the University. Inworld's day.

tellect thus comes under bonds, The circumstances that have pro- with the usual result of degradaduced the relations between Church tion following upon the removal and universities with us have been of free play and healthy interest; peculiar. Says Gibbon :-“the and we cannot wonder if Adam schools of Oxford and Cambridge Smith should have had some justiwere founded in a dark age of false fication for his words, surly as and barbarous science, and they are they seem to us to-day :still tainted with the vices of their · The discipline of colleges and origin.” Says Smith ("Wealth of universities is in general contrived, Nations"):

not for the benefit of the students, “ The present universities of but for the interest, or more proEurope were originally, the greater perly speaking, for the ease of the part of them, ecclesiastical corpora- masters." tions, instituted for the education How narrowed may become uniof Churchmen. They were founded versity feeling, that should be by the authority of the Pope ; and broad to receive the impress of the were so entirely under his im- universe; into what jealousy and mediate protection, that their timidity it may fail

, may be members, whether masters or judged from such a fact as that students, had all of them what

of the University Orator in 1669 Was then called the benefit of clergy, inveighing against the Royal that is, were exempted from the Society, established in Oxford at civil jurisdiction of the countries the middle of the century, as unin which their respective nniversi- dermining the University. The ties were situated, and generous University, awake to amenable only to the ecclesiastical ideas, would have absorbed the tribunals. What was taught in Royal Society into its own bosom, the greater part of those universi- with its workers as a free comties was suitable to the end of mittee of investigation, enjoying their institutions, either theology, University privileges and support. or something that was merely pre- But Robert Boyle was much too paratory to theology."

broad and sturdy to be taken in by The Reformation, while it smote such as could not open their arms abuses that were grown rampant,

very wide. and a religion that had lost its way Taking a leap of something over in luxurious ceremony, introduced a century and a half, we find an element peculiarly affecting the Oxford, not much improved, endearelation of Church and University, vouring to crush a new University that of Doctrine. Doctrine, that is to that proposed to omit conventional say, not as being the form of truths theology from its curriculum, with that were naturally or spiritually its petition “that serious injury evident, and so to be appreciated would accrue to numerous ancient according to the growth of the institutions, and much consequent mind and quality of the soul, but evil to the public, if a right to as a system to be inculcated intact, confer any academical distinctions and constituting the whole and designated by the same titles or


accompanied with the same privi- now no longer the same implied leges as the degrees of the reproach to the elder universities Universities of Oxford and Cam- in the words of F. W. Newman as bridge should be given by royal when they were written (1841): charter, either expressly or by “ The Scotch and the German implication, to a society who had universities are as open as that of no immediate connection with the London ; Dublin University admits Established Church, and taught no

Roman Catholics as well as Protessystem of religion."

tants. The Moors of Spain This was nearly fifty years ago ;


allowed Christian and great changes have taken youths of France and England to place in the relation between the study in their University of CorUniversity and the Established dova.Church ; changes as

great in

That which the universities have their way as the difference between lost in prestige, that subtle power the present system of examinations so difficult to regain, they owe to and that early state in which the their subjugation to ecclesiastical student could undergo his exercises modes. We raise no question as at the hands of an old toping com- to whether these modes were in panion of his choice, or as the themselves evil or good; there is. difference between the present fault none the less either way in state of the Bodleian Library and the subjugation to them of the its condition when the father of soul of a university. Here is the Beddoes the poet, an experi- feeling, for instance, of some plain mentalist, and friend of Sir Hum- man writing in Rees' Cyclopedia phry Davy, was complaining of in 1819:— Within the last twenty the neglect and incivility of the years London has presented nearly librarian. Then college libraries all the advantages, without any of were “attics haunted by pigeons the fetters, of established univerand drowsy with dust."

What a

sities; for in this vast city many brief space of time, if we will but literary and scientific institutions realise it, is between us and bar

have been formed, and many barism. It is incredible to think courses of lectures delivered, all during how short a period has calculated to improve the rising been enjoyed such a pursuit as the

generation." study of Greek. We may be very The power of unfettered ideas hopeful that the Reformation is a is to allow us to take compreheugreat event not yet concluded. We sive views and breathe in expanhear of the decadence of England: sive air; the palaces where love truly we are moving rapidly in and wisdom may dwell are certain evil directions, but taking theologic fantasy, but as real as a view that will allow for ups and the hovels of ignorance and downs, and pauses and renewals, brutality. “If we ask,” says do we realise how very recent is F. W. Newman, with much force,

“wherein the civilised differs from No doubt a narrow view of the savage intellect, we find it is theology has stood in the way of mainly in the disposition and university expansion, and the over- power to look backwards and shadow of the Church cannot but forwards; while in the most dehave specialised or limited the graded barbarism, the mind is university idea. Now there is a

fixed solely the

present hope that both may grow in grace moment.” and breadth together. There is To enable persons to acquire this.


our rise ?


priceless power is the work, not the vehicle of ideas. In medicine, only of the ideal but of the real similarly, there ought to be no university.

fear of resolving practice into its “ The university," says Pattison, ideas : “pneumatology”. Adam " is hereby distinguished from the Smith sneers at as constituting a school, that the pupil here takes preferential department to physics leave of disciplinal studies, and in the common

course of the enters upon real knowledge.”

greater part of the universities of Again, the university is not an Europe ; but of psychology, bugacademy, which has for its object bear though it be from its diffithe extension of knowledge only, culty and novelty as a definite and the stimulation of philosophi- study, the ideal university, which cal inquiry. These pursuits may is the very representative of “the be in connection with the universi- men who know,” is bound to learn ties or not; whether they are or something. The term knowledge not, the ideal university will have can be employed but in a very its own portion of them. To cite imperfect sense if any part be Pattison once more :

shirked, as far as its principles at “ The university is to be an least are concerned, of the omne association of men of science. But scibile. it is not for the sake of science that Has the ideal university any they are associated. Whether or business to interfere in politics? no the State should patronise By no means to interfere ; but science, or promote discovery, is being the representative of princianother question.

Even if it ples, certainly to inform. The should, a university is not the National Church, having been organ for this purpose. A pro- long a party, or rather several fessoriate has for its duty to main- parties, instead of a comprehensive tain, cultivate, and diffuse extant rallying ground of earnest men, knowledge. This is an everyday we have said that the ideal unifunction which should not be con- versity must hold aloof, as in duty founded with the very exceptional bound, from. sectarianism. So with pursuit of prosecuting researches politics. There is a philosophic or conducting experiments with region, lit by the intelligence of a view to new discoveries. The the highest, and above party; in professoriate is 'to know what is this the university-soul should known and definitely acquired for dwell. There would be plenty to

on the most important do without meddling in the misehuman concerns' (Grant Duff).”. rable squabble that among all

In accordance with this wise below statesmanlike men, and in view of university functions, law all things below Imperial measures, should be taught as a science, and misuses as cruelly the name of in its principles. And as they re

politics as fanatics take in vain the tire from the actual business of word republic. England is nototeaching, the professors in the riously content with taking life ideal university would endeavour from day to day, and ignoring the to contribute towards the reduc- light of principles upon the future. tion, through principles, to order, Wise men know this, and shrug of the gigantic, overgrown waste of their shoulders; a philosopher is law that appears daily to grow an anomaly in the very House of more ugly and hopeless, and is a Commons, he is so terribly lonely. disgrace to a community possessed Nevertheless, there is a workable of brains capable of being made field of somewhat neglected know


any actual

ledge in scientia civilis. How dif- heard on these topics—necessarily ferent might events have been in reaches the Government and influFrance, if the University of Paris ences its action, in this country had sustained in luminous reality there are no organised means for the noble title of the

perpe- its ever reaching our Government tual Council of the Gauls"! at all.” We may treat the phrase The ideal university, or rather “educational opinion” here in a those in it who form its element wider sense than was intended. of continuity, and are free of task There is a miserable contempt work, have a duty to perform. prevalent among unreasoning They need interfere in no actual minds for what is only a theory; operation; they need excite the they are unaware that a theory ire of no individual monopolist or is only a view, or would be comvested interest; theirs is not to pelled to allow that a thing must war against persons or details ; be seen in one way or other before they have to do with principles; anything can be done with it. We and these they proclaim fearlessly, may interest ourselves in the old and in time to be of service to picture of the astute counsellor those who might wish to adopt standing breathing into the ear of them in

conduct the king. That potentate, be he of affairs. Without being doc- prince or people, may not always trinaires, they might treat the follow definite advice, but he is subject of shoddy-work as a matter influenced by it to a greater extent of philosophic and national in- than he is himself aware of. terest and importance; they might In these days of growing luxury, work out the complete theory of the stainless ideal university would labour-disputes by the light of enter its protest and establish a historic progress from feudalism, kingdom wherein it was recognised .and shew each side its strength that intelligence is superior to the and its weakness. They would costliest upholstery, and where teach to look ahead. They might poverty would be refined and open the eyes of short-sighted allowed to be no bar to a share of business men, who are very quick, intellectual life. however, to follow a lead if tbey In former days universities were are left free to turn away from it. devised to benefit poor students ; Their truths should not be pressed now they mainly help only the upon people; publication, with comparatively rich; while the class the natural authority of those that now in a peculiar way needs known to be familiar with that most help, is neglected. The of which they treat, would be methods of apprenticeship, the enough; truth wins her own place necessity that a lad shall earn in the end. The Government it- money, the fear of pauperising self is not unwilling to entertain parents; these prevent us from reideas provided they not deeming our squalid masses by brought as a pill with a deputa- passing them when young through tion present to see it swallowed. a course that would make them But as Matthew Arnold says :- able to earn their bread honestly,

“While, the Continent, and set our country far above its through Boards and Councils, the rivals in the enhanced power of best educational opinion of the our handicraftsmen, and the concountry,-by which I mean the sequent economy of their workopinion of : men who have manship. We patch up at large established their right to be at least expense the gaping social defects;



we hem in with police; provide thing," say they, "had with thein ample prisons; but to attack the a singular unity, and a wonderfully root, what is it fails us ? It is not practical turn. Theology, metamoney, but ideas.

These the physics, poetry, history, painting, universities might supply. Not architecture, all formed for them transcendental ideas, but ideas one grand fabric.” When Catholics. capable of being developed into learn that private judgment would practical statesmanship.

be the strength and glory of a We would not go so far as to real Church which would embrace say that Oxford or Cambridge every good aspiration, whether it should build workshops to train took an ancient, a mediæval, or mechanics, or should establish a modern doctrinal form; and schools of design for calico printers, when Protestants, still protesting or should train the scamping work- against slavery of

the reason man of the day into a responsible through voluptuous ceremonial wealth-producer ; but the ideal and narrow rules of faith, still university would give patronage further expand the growing tolerand support, as well as suggestion ance, and exchange doctrinal and and impetus, to institutions fitted trifling disputes for a more truly for such purposes.

catholic spirit and love, then may But as universities are of all we hope for the ideal university kinds, literary, theologic, medical, on a grander level than ever. Jesuitical, free; so the ideal uni- What would unite both would be versity might contain a department the realisation of a present inspior found a special branch for the ration, in the light of which the training of handicraftsmen, or the authority of any Peter is put on a teaching of useful arts, in a more level with the authority of Shakeeconomic manner than the present speare, that is, on his own merits, blundering system of apprentice- and not on prescription or inculcaship; it might overcome jealous tion. This disintegration of what is secrecy and opposition to the ob- unreal is actually taking place. taining of special knowledge. We see the signs of it day by day. There an attempt made Furthermore, the ideal of to-day some few years ago to establish is the hope of to-morrow, and the in London a National Univer- working clue of the years. sity for Industrial and Technical On difficult questions the best Training, but the scheme fell informed men have taken up a through, doubtless for lack of feeble fashion of observing silence, ideas having previously done their putting their conclusions aside as sufficient work. The Kensington referring to tender and untouchSchool of Science and Art, with able topics. Their conclusions its branches, is, however, an exten- may be wise and valuable, and sive university; while the School known to a limited circle of their of Cookery is really a technical friends, but they shrink from university of an important kind, giving them forth. Isolated effort in view of the health, comfort, and is paralysed before such questions. economy of the community. It is On the permanent element in the at least more important to work at ideal university, and on all gathersuch a purpose than to edit a ings of trained and well-stored classic that has been several times minds, it depends to be schoolwell done already

teachers of men. Where ideas are The Catholics claim to have once honestly launched forth, even had the ideal university. “Every- though they may fail of reaching


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