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trated in a similar style; and then calling upon nature's fairies and we come to the explanation of the asking them to speak to us. Is it nature of radiation, of the ether, not strange, then, that people of the interference of light, of the should pass them by so often size of the waves of light, of the without a thought, and be content velocity of their motion, of the to grow up ignorant of all the spectrum, and of the composition wonderful powers ever active in of variously coloured lights. Then the world around them ?” we have the reflection of light, the This little book will, we cause of vision, the nature of sure, stir up a desire for knowledge colour, and the properties of the in many a young mind, and be dark heat and chemical rays—all the starting point from which clearly and familiarly described. some of our future students of

The illustrations are very nume- science will date their introduction rous, and almost all are new and to the study of nature. effective. In the chapter on water and ice we have pictures of a William Harvey ; a History of the stalactite cavern, of the wonderful Discovery of the Circulation of the earth-pillars of Botzen, of a charm- Blood. By R. Willis, M.D. Loning water-worn ravine, of the mar- don: C. Kegan Paul and Co. vellous Great Cañon of the Colorado Italian writers of late have River, and of cliffs on the coast of ascribed the discovery of the Scotland from an original sketch. circulation to certain of their own In the chapter on coal we have the countrymen. They differ however most recent information, condensed, among themselves, some giving the and put into picturesque language; palm to Cesalpino, others to Carlo while there is a beautiful illustra- Ruini. Dr. Willis vindicates the tion of a “ Forest of the Coal

of his countryman, 'and Period,” exhibiting the results of proves, from their own writings. the research of our best botanists. and those of their contemporaries, “Bees and Flowers” is also a that the very professors for whom delightful chapter, giving the the discovery is claimed themselves wonderful history of the relations refused to give credence to Harvey's of flowers and insects, as discovered theory. In the early part of his by Mr. Darwin and other investi- book" the author gives a short gators.

account of the leading anatomists In the concluding remarks the and physiologists, who lived before authoress thus speaks to her

the time of his hero. Herophilus, young readers : “We have learnt Erasistratus and others are said to that there is a world of wonder have dissected the human subject which we may visit if we will, and alive. Evidently, in those days, the that it lies close to us, hidden in anti-vivisectionist was unknown. every dewdrop and gust of wind, The accepted theory of the time in every

brook and valley, in every was that of Galen, who believed little plant and animal. We have that the blood moved to and fro in only to stretch out our hand and the vessels, that the arteries contouch them with the wand of in- tained blood replete with vital quiry, and they will answer us, spirit, and that the veins carried and reveal the fairy forces which nourishment for the tissues of the guide and govern them; and thus body. The heart be held to be the pleasant and happy thought may storehouse of vital heat, the liver be conjured up at any time, where- organ of sanguinification. ever we find ourselves, by simply About half a century before the






time of Harvey, a discovery of “History of the Popes” is one of the highest importance the most charming and popular made by Michael Servetus, emanations from the pen of that who demonstrated the passage

brilliant writer. There is even of the blood through the (we were going to say especially) lungs, disproving the old hypo- to non-Catholics a fascination in thesis that the blood passed from all that regards Catholicism-its the right to the left side of the history, policy,

policy, and internal heart through the septum, and only economy. And yet even amongst entered the lungs for purposes of

Catholics a vast amount of ignornutrition. Of Harvey's life Dr. ance exists on the subject, and Willis gives a pleasant description. especially with regard to the That he was a man of peace is modus operandi of the government evident, for when, in his capacity of the Church, the duties of the of physician to Charles I., this various executive officers,

officers, the man of science was present at the

appointing those battle of Edgehill, we are told by officers, and the nature and extent his biographer Aubrey that he of their jurisdiction and authority. withdrew a short distance, and, In the “Lives of the Cardinals, taking out of his pocket a book, so far as the work yet extends, began to read. He had not, how- information of this kind is clearly, ever, been long seated, when a ball succinctly, and picturesquely placed from a big gun ploughed up the

before us.

The part now before us ground close by, upon which he consists of the memoirs of the Pope changed his position and went on (Cardinal Pecci), Cardinal Cullen, reading. He tells us that he was and Cardinal Franchi. The work not

is superb in the manner in which Of those who build their faith upon

it is produced-paper, typography, The holy text of pike and gun,

and lithograph likenesses being as And prove their doctrine orthodox

near perfection as in any work of By apostolic blows and knocks.

the kind that has come under our That Dr. Willis has very thoroughly notice. Were we disposed to be studied his subject, and is familiar hypercritical we should say that with the works of English and the likeness of Cardinal Cullen Italian writers not known to every- fails to catch the peculiar, disone, is shown by the numerous quota- passionate, almost dead expression, tions with which he supports his or, as some would say, want of arguments and enriches his pages. expression, which was wont to In one or two places he dips rather dwell on his late Eminence's face. deeply into anatomy, too deeply The cover of the work is a re. perhaps for a reader to follow who presentation of the facade of St. has not studied that science; but Peter's, surmounted by the ponwe can decidedly recommend the tifical arms worked in gold. We buok to any one taking an interest think it a pity the letterpress of in the structure and functions of the the title should cross this design human frame, and in the steps by and mar its effect. With regard which our present knowledge was to the matter, the biographies are evolved.

not merely memoirs

nounced: they are considerable The Lives of the Cardinals. By essays in terse language upon the P. Justin O'Byrne. London : lives, characters, and times of the Roland Ladelle and Co. Part I.

personages of which the author Macaulay's Essay on Ranke's treats. Mr. O'Byrne manifests




descriptive power, a command of marked character of the changes language, and a good deal of of late years in the economic prinsuggestiveness, with a charm of ciples upon which the wealth of style which is likely to render the the world is being acquired, diswork popular. We are made ac- tributed, and accumulated, and the quainted in thirty-six pages with a effects thereof as compared with great amount of information, not that period of the commercial hismerely of the lives and characters tory of the world when none of the of the individuals, but of the times more modern forces and facilities in which they lived. Mr. O'Byrne which we refer to in our opening may be congratulated on the pre- chapter

available." The mier number of a publication

a publication “New Departure,” we are told, is which seems likely to enjoy

enjoy not intended to embrace any par. popularity, and to command ticular period of time or epoch in distinctive place in ecclesiastical the shifting of trade centres. The literature.

marked changes referred to have

become more and more distinctly A New Departure in the Domain discernible since the introduction of Political Economy. By Arthur of steam, the telegraph, limited Crump. London: Longmans. liability companies, the increase and

Whether trade be active or dull, spread of wealth and manufacturwhich latter condition has been the ing power, and the advancement of experience of commercial countries economic science among those who, throughout the world since the up till within a comparatively reoutburst which followed the con- cent period, exchanged their comclusion of the Franco-German war, modities and conducted their intertraders themselves manifest a won- national dealings with the antiderful indifference to the economic quated machinery of a ruder age. developments going on around Shorter trade routes, such as the them, in which they are so deeply way to the Eastern markets through concerned. There is a trite saying the Suez Canal instead of round to the effect that those who look on the Cape, combined with the other see more of the game than the yearly extending influences referred players, in confirmation of which to, have brought about revolutions we may refer to the work on eco- in trade which are at this moment nomic science just brought out by exercising a radical influence upon Mr. Arthur Crump. The author international dealings far beyond is not a trader, and probably has what can be conceived by those had little practical experience in whose opportunities do not admit trade operations.

of their plumbing the greater rently, however, been looking on depths of the commercial channels to some purpose at the game, and of our times. One of Mr. Crump's many traders themselves will be great points is, in his own words, surprised to find, on reading through “ that the stocks held of all comthe

pages of this book, how little modities have permanently dimithey were aware of the changes nished.” If this statement be which have been wrought in the well founded, it implies a great modus operandi of their business by deal more than appears upon the the introduction of the more modern surface. We are told that the exfacilities to which Mr. Crump di- tension of telegraphic communicarects our attention. He states in tion renders the holding of large his introduction,

“What we desire surplus stocks unnecessary and to direct attention to is the more unprofitable-a statement which is

He has appa

followed by this significant remark: doubt there is much truth in this “This change, having occurred at remark, for it is well known how a time when over-production had seriously commercial affairs are been carried to an unprecedented interfered with by even a temporary extent, furnishes some explanation scarcity of the precious metals. A of the prolonged stagnation among fall of 25 per cent. in the value of producers. The supply must con- silver comes home to us, when we sequently be greatly diminished reflect upon the loss to an Eastern below what was formerly kept in bank upon that portion of its stock before there can be a new capital or deposits which may be recovery

in wholesale prices. employed in India or China. Smaller stocks of everything now A great point to which Mr. held means less capital required to Crump strives to direct public work with, simultaneously with attention is set forth in the followlarger central supplies in the form ing paragraph : “A feature in the of bank bank deposits.

Individual new departure, to which we refer savings are thus placed farther more in detail further on, is that out of reach."

the extension of the telegraph has, Everyone must admit that these for a long time past, been gradually are questions of the greatest impor. placing both large and small tance, and, whether or not in all traders, and also consumers, more respects well founded, deserve the

upon a level as regards a knowcareful consideration of political ledge of the varying circumstances economists, as they distinctly indi- affecting all markets. The extencate the setting up of new forces, sion of the telegraph has tended and the forsaking of old channels also to equalise value all over conand systems by whose aid the suming countries, which diminishes business of the world has hitherto the extent of the fluctuations in been conducted to a large extent. prices.” We are told also that a The following observation is big feature in the trade of with meaning for Englishmen: England is that the development

“No one can visit the Paris of “ports of call” has caused the Exhibition without remarking that actual export of grain from this at all events as regards manufac- country to sink to an insignificant turers, the various nations of the quantity, as compared with the world are more and more on a level.” consumption. It is again alleged

Depreciated currencies, in 80 that the opening of the Suez Canal, many cases side by side with the and the telegraphic facilities, have fall in the value of silver, are caused a complete revolution in the assigned as among the many un- system of conducting business in favourable influences which during Mincing-lane. “The producer and the past four or five years have consumer now stand face to face,” depressed trade in an unprece- our author states, “which, there dented degree. Mr. Crump states can be no doubt, is one of the that the great arbitrage operators greatest economic revolutions of say, that, whereas the circulating modern times.” We have no space medium of the world formerly went for any more excerpts, and must, on two legs, now, through the therefore, close our notice of a demonetisation of silver by Ger- work which aims principally at many, Holland, &c., and the regu- striking


the untrodden lations under which the metal is domain of the subject, in preference coined by the states of the Latin to again working up the oftunion, it goes on one leg. No fashioned materials of this dry



science, with a recommendation to simple folk representing the unour readers interested in the

sophisticated sense of man; they practical side of modern life to might follow his utterances with a follow out in greater detail, in the scared and morbid pleasure, but work itself, the heads which we would most likely avoid him ever have here touched upon.

after as an uncanny and suspected

person. Now, in spite of our various Lautrec. A Poem by John Payne. crusts, we all have within us in a London: Pickering.

more or less degree and more or Mr. Payne has both poetic ima- less hidden away, the unspoiled gination and artistic execution, natural element which the peasants enough to endow with a charm any of remote villages of the south subject he may take in hand. But

more fully embody; and it is to surely our world that was this simple and primitive sense deemed so brave is not so worn that the poem before us will give out and faded and old, but that more dissatisfaction than delight. it will afford some lovely image to If we quit Puritanism and enter the man with mirrors in his eyes. through the door of licence into Is it absolutely necessary for an the shadowy and chaotic regions of art whose object is the beauty of art for art's sake we are bound to truth, and the fairy visions of the admit that the Vampire, as a study, pure ideal, to leave men and women offers many points of picturesqueand angels, and turn to the delinea- ness. The following, translated tion of vampires ?

from a sixteenth century writer, If Mr. Payne desires to recreate presumably by Mr. Payne himself, his mind after his recent labour of gives the motif of his work : turning into isometric English the Dead persons are styled Vampires, into ballads of that shameless genius, whom-either by the absorption of the Master Francis Villon, he has at rays of the waxing moon or through the least chosen strange pastures and

potency of some other diabolical influence

-has been infused an unholy and noc. rather slimy waters for his refresh

turnal vitality, by dint whereof they ment.

break sepulchre, and wandering over the If the stirring and sterling earth in the full splendour of the moon, beliefs of old days are to die down

fearsomely feed on the blood of sleeping into a flat materialism on the one

folk. It is of record also that those thus

done to death not seldom in their turn be. side and a morbid psychology on come Vampires. the other, the pessimists are indeed

The story opens with a girl lying about to have their innings. Were these the bygone days

upon a bier in a lonely chapel, dead

to all seeming, but with a tranceof patron and poet, and we the

life opened to the fell rays of the former, we should send Mr. Payne

moon, and a voice that only sprites for a year or two to some country

can hear. A knight and she have of smokeless skies and delicious

plighted troth and very deeply climate, where he might lie down fallen in love, selfishly perhaps, for under the shadow of vine leaves and listen to the song of merry light

.... day by day we met; and none

Gave heed unto the chain of gold hearted peasants at their work.

That link'd our lives. Our hearts When he has been away long enough to forget the oppressive

To all else breathed beneath the sun. drama of civilisation, he will per

We loved as gods in days of old. chance fling the brightness of their A preacher of the Crusade carsunny songs back upon them with ries off the Knight Lautrec to the new melodies. But let him not

grew cold

News comes home that he unloose his vampire dreams upon

is slain. His betrothed is stunned,


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