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the history of ethics appears. There is great need of such a study, a book like that Maurice wrote for the Encyclopædia Metropolitana, but more modern and scientific.

So far as this book of Dr. Wald. stein's specialises, it is original, without being extraordinary. Aiming at an analysis of emotion and intellect, it attempts also to gain a criterion by which they may be measured and regulated. The analysis is good, but the criterion does not seem to be reached. Yet there is room for such work as the author gives us, and thoughtful men should be thankful to have here afforded them a new position from which to regard the problem of education.

The scented smoke now darkened half

the room. They sang aloud a wild beseeching strain To their great god who rules the

human doom, Whose dread attendants are the spirits

of the gloom. And now they danced a curious antique

dance Their manly limbs with ashes silvered

o'er; It seemed to me some wild and frantic

prance As sprites may do on lonely haunted

moor. The silent crowds there waited at the door While loudly rang the bells both great

and small. 'Twas solemn scene, it touched me to the

core.

Amazed I looked, leaning against the

wall. What tho' in faith they err;-with hope

and love they call.

The Indian Pilgrim. By Jogesh Chunder Dutt. Calcutta: I. C.

Lyrics and Landscapes. By Guy Bose and Co., Stanhope Press. Roslyn. London: Arthur Moxon.

The Dutt family must be a At the end of this volume are breed of poets, for it is but a few printed many quotations from remonths since in this magazine was views of the author's “ Village reviewed the poem of a Calcutta Verses." These are so favourable justice, Shoshee Chunder Dutt, Rai

that we feel quite abashed at our Báhádoor. The author of the little

want of taste in regard to the book work before us has not yet fully under our notice. It is full of developed his powers; and the

verses that do not offend the ear stanzas of this lengthy poem are by false metres or doubtful rhymes, unequal in merit and occasionally but that is really all that can be slightly ungrammatical. The fol.

said in its favour. It is time that lowing, however, are quotable :

the critic be firm in telling the I stood within the temple of the god,

honest truth about such inoffenThe temple of the “ lord of earth and sive meek little books as this. It main,

is almost a sin to let them see the Which oft many a pilgrim's feet have trod

light, for they are as useless and To clean them of their sin and worldly

unfortunate as flies born in a stain.

wintry day.

CONTEMPORARY PORTRAITS.

SIR FREDERICK LEIGHTON, P.R.A. (January Number, page 57.) ERRATUM.—The dinner at the Arts Club, at which Millais so gracefully referred to a

prophecy of Thackeray's, was given in honour of Sir Frederick Leighton, and not by him, as stated.

THE

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

MARCH, 1879.

THREE IDEALS OF HUMAN EXCELLENCE.

ACCORDING TO (1) THE MISHNA, (2) THE CONSTITUTIONS OF

LOYOLA, AND (3) THE ETHICS OF ARISTOTLE.

I.

observance, the Catholic doctors The actual civilisation of Europe have altogether scorned to study. is not of indigenous growth. It They have commenced their excontains, no doubt, a strong native positions by denying that the Jews element, the force of which, it may understood their own Law, or are be said, has been habitually too competent witnesses as to the much overlooked. Old Teutonic meaning of that literature, the virtues may even now be found to preservation of which is due enlive and thrive in the sparsely tirely to their reverent care. Not peopled regions of the North, and only has orthodox Catholicity under the rigors of an Alpine or a attributed to the sacred books of Baltic winter. But through the the Hebrew Scriptures doctrines greater parts of Western and nowhere to be deduced from the Southern Europe, and, indeed, plain grammatical meaning of the wherever the stately fabric of the language, but it has assigned Catholic Church has pressed upon canons of interpretation which are the structure of society, an influ- altogether subversive of the ence altogether foreign to the primary principles of the Law thus principles of Aryan civilisation has misrepresented. If there was one proved to be a powerful element doctrine of the ancient law which in the transformation of opinion above all others was its ineffaceable and of habit. This influence has characteristic it was that of imbeen that of the Law and of a mutable permanence.

The lanportion of the literature of a

guage attributed to the Jewish Semitic people as expounded by Legislator as to this is as definite the fiercest enemies of their race. as is competent to human speech, The actual significance and force of But it is not more definite, positive, that law, and the effects which its and unqualified than is the repetiprescriptions produced on the tion of the same phraseology which nation that prided itself on its is attributed by the writers of the

a

on

Gospels to the Founder of Chris- that mass of Synhedral enactments tianity.*

and judicial decisions which bear Indeed, the Aryan idea of de- to the Pentateuch a relation as velopment, progress, and the excel. indispensable to its intelligent lence of novelty is the very opposite comprehension, as do the reports of the Semitic idea of permanence, of cases and judicial decisions, in divine perfection, and hatred of our own country, to the bare letter innovation. Language spoken or of the statutes at large. written by men of the latter race In the discussions that are now is either unintelligible or ob- exciting so vivid an interest as to noxious to men of the former, the relations of religion and of when it is a question of what is ethics, or the relative provinces of true, authoritative, and perfect. Science and Faith, the first and Thus the influence on Christendom perhaps the greatest difficulty is of the Law of Moses, in so to clear the ground. We are far as it has been declared by entering on new method of Catholic doctors to be partially or inquiry, although the field eclectically binding on the con- which it is to be applied is very science, has been not only that of ancient. We are thus perplexed an alien and foreign institution, at

every step by unconscious but that of such an institution assumptions of matters which rewholly perverted and misunder- quire not to be assumed, but stood-at all events, in the judg- to be proved. We are in constant ment of the countrymen of the danger of using well-worn terms law-giver and the subjects and in a sense that may be misleading. original students of the law. It is, for example, a very constant

From the primary and central assumption that the religious dogma of the Jewish faith, down sentiments, hopes, and habits of to the minutest prescription of the a pious Jew in old times differed later sages and legislators of the so little from those proper to be Hebrew people, there is, perhaps, encouraged in a pious Christian, not a single detail of which the that the former may be taken, with Catholic Church has taken hold some slight changes, as a model of which it has not absolutely and example for the latter. How reversed the true import, if the erroneous the assumption is will Semitic race understand their own be perhaps partly understood if language, laws, and institutions.

we attempt to present a sketch of It is not so much the object of the ideal Jew, the man formed on the present pages to illustrate this the perfect pattern of his law, as view, instructive as the task may explained by its most illustrious be, as to glance at the ethical doctors. It may be instructive ideal which is the outcome of the further to place by the side of this Law of Moses, understanding by portrait that of the most complete that law, as all competent scholars and perfect example of the rule of must do, not actually rules derived Christian doctrine, as laid down by foreign teachers from transla- by the great authorities of the tions of the contents of either or historic Latin Church, and by the all of the three divisions of the men who were to Catholicism what Hebrew canon, but the outcome Aristotle was to Greek philosophy, of the written law, explained by and what Maimonides was to Hebrew ethics and literature ; such The language “ God, I thank thee as Thomas à Kempis and Ignatius that I am not as other men are,”+ Loyola. Lastly, it may be desirable presumptuous and indecent as it to place alongside of the perfect may appear to English ears, was Jew, according to the written and but the echo of the whole services of oral law, and of the perfect the sanctuary; and the only obserChristian, according to the “ De vation which could have been made Imitatione Jesu Christi,” and the by such a teacher as Hillel in depreutterances of contemporary Catho- ciation of that utterance would have licism, a sketch of the character been, that the reference to the pubthat might be formed by the ob- lican ought not to have been so servance of the ethical rule of made in the earshot of the latter, Aristotle—the systematic pursuit if he were a Jew, as to call the of true felicity, by promoting the blush of shame to his cheek. energy of the soul according to Christ quoted the words of previrtue.

* Matt. v. 18; cf. Isa. xxxiv. 4, 16, Maimonides, preface to the Mishna.

ceding prophets in enjoining on II.

his hearers to “ be perfect, even as A primary condition of the ex- their Father in Heaven was peristence of the model Jew demands fect;'S and we have no intimarather more notice than might tion that any of these hearers otherwise be awarded to it, from thought the phrase was either a its essential and irreconcileable satire, or a recommendation to do opposition to the fundamental what was impossible, either as assumptions of orthodox Chris- found in the Law or as repeated by tianity. Christianity, in all its Christ. If the prescriptions of the Faried sects, may be said to be Law were broken through inadvertbased on the assumption of the in- ence, the machinery of the trespass herent evil of human nature, and offering remedied the defect. Even the radical inability of any human in the graver case of wilful neglect being (without aid of a nature or disobedience, there could never approaching the miraculous), to arise that long fear and misery of keep the Divine laws. The first the conscience which some teachers assumption of the Jewish teacher declare to be the very life of Chriswas the opposite. Not only was tianity. For crimes judicially the Law Divine perfect and immu- provable by at least two witnesses, table, but it was capable of being the exact punishments were apobeyed, and was held to be practi- portioned. For crimes thought to cally and habitually obeyed, by have been committed, but not so the pious Jew. Evidence as to provable, there was the resource of this statement is derivable from the peace offering, as well as that sources not exclusively Jewish. of the national expiation on the No Christian writer speaks with Great Day of Atonement. That more authority than the Evangelist day passed, all previous sin was who tells of a priest and his wife not only pardoned, but blotted out. as “both righteous before God, For God was regarded as the walking in ail the commandments avenger of his own law, and the and ordinances of the Lord blame. sanction that restrained the Jew less,"* without any indication from wilful but concealed crime that such characters were unusual. was the fear of sudden death before the next day of atonement. Thus passed in conformity to the Divine for every wrong there was a remedy. law, was divided by the sages who If even capital punishment were wrote the treatise Pirke Aboth of inflicted, the hope of future happi. the Mishna (the tenth tract of the ness was unaffected.* “No second fourth order) into thirteen distinct penalty for the same offence” was periods. Omitting the quaint the grand principle of the Law; ceremonies that accompanied and and thus no Jew needed to live on followed the nativity of a Jewish doubtful terms with his own con- boy, we find that at five years old science.

* Lake i. 6.

+ Luke xviii. 11. I Capita Patrum, cap. iv., Mish. 3. $ Matt. v. 48 ; cf. Deut. xviii, 13.

he was to be taught the letters of It is evident that the influence of the Sacred Books; at ten he was a code of this nature on the entire to commence the study of the character must have been something Mishna; at thirteen he was held to very different from that of any reli- the precepts of the law, became a gious or ethical system with which responsible agent, and his father we are familiar. If, on the one was no longer held liable for his hand, there was a tendency to transgressions of any command; at encourage a degree of self-satisfac- fifteen he was to commence the tion which must degenerate into an study of the Ghemara, or third part insane self-conceit,t on the other of the Talmud; thus giving five hand the negation of the self-con- years to the Mikra, or written law; tradictory assertion that it is the five years to the Mishna, or spoken duty of man to do what he is prac- law; and five years to the Com. tically unable to do avoided that ments of the Sages. At eighteen confusion between right and wrong he was to marry, one of the reasons which is the necessary result of for fixing this age being taken such a doctrine. Peace of mind from the occurrence of the word and integrity of conscience were Adam” eighteen times in the not only within the reach of the Parascha, or section of the PentaJew, but their enjoyment appears teuch commencing “ Let us make to have been contemplated by the man.' At twenty he was to addict legislator as to be afforded him himself to the pursuit of money ; as his normal condition. Doubts at thirty he was called upon for and difficulties, self-torturing ap- toil; at forty commenced the period prehensions, conflicting opinions of prudence, and at fifty of

to religious duty, were out counsel. Old age began at sixty, of the pale of that narrow but and hoary hairs at seventy. Ninety eminently practical code which was the signal to prepare for the summed up and precisely defined tomb, and the man of 100 was conthe entire duty of man. The influ- sidered as if dead, and no longer ence of this master principle in belonging to the world. forming a national character can- Within this narrow round lay not easily be over-rated.

the whole routine of Jewish life. The life of the Jew, regarded as Forty-eight blessings were to be

as

* De Synedriis, cap. xi. Mish. 1. See notes on pp. 259, 265 in vol. iv. of the Edition of the Mishna by Surenhuse.

+ “ La raison qui passe du monde réel dans une region idéale croit avancer lorsqu'elle recule ; se roidit contre la nécessité, se trouble et outre tout. Chaque docteur, chaque precepteur, exiga qu'on l'appelle grand, sublime, prince, et roi, malgré les haillons qui le couvrent. Il prend son vieux fauteuil pour la chaise de Moïse, et chacune de ses disciples s'imagine entendre Dieu parler sur le Sinai.” Le Talmud de Babylon. Prolegomenes, par L'Abbé Chiarini, vol. i. p. 34.

I Capita Patrum, cap. v. Mish. 21.

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