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an

Here I am, an Irish brother,

Bibles don't disagree, of course, Will you give me your hand ?

but who shall decide when they Let us hatred cast away, Be our prayer night and day,

agree too much?

Messrs. Eyre May love yet make a nation of our

and Spottiswoode and Mr. Frowde Fatherland.

appear to have fallen into a disThe following is from a fine poem,

agreement, arising out of a too entitled “ Onward”:

complete agreement between the

Teachers' Bibles published by their The world rides on through misty space

respective houses. When a de I live me in the night, And throw a lighted torch to trace

mand arose for an edition containThe morning's coming light.

ing a very library of biblical refeAnd fearsome things from rock and tide, rence by way of appendix, it Pass still before my eyes ;

appears that Mr. Frowde first But with the world, through space I ride, advertised announcement in To dwell in cloudless skies.

detail of his valuable series, upon Our quotations may conclude

which editors were engaged ; whilst with a sturdy ballad :

the other firm, making use amongst HUGH BRENNAN.

other matter of some taken from

an old Oxford Bible, were able to Hugh Brennan was a ploughman stout, His heart was always gay,

get their edition through the press From end to end the year to him a little more quickly. Mr. Frowde Was one sunshiny day.

has now added such new features Said he “ The King upon his throne,

as an account of aquatic animals, In station's rather high ; But is the King upon his throne,

geology, metals, and precious A happier man than I ?”

stones of the Bible, a list of words

obsolete or ambiguous, of words 'Tis true my coat is common stuff, 'Tis Mabel's home-spun frieze,

used symbolically, &c. These Bibles 'Tis true my tastes are very low,

contain a concordance, an index, a But human groans and cries

dictionary, maps, and notes and Break not my slumber thro' the night; tabulated lists too numerous to I wake without a sigh,

mention. I'd rank him, Mabel dear, a King

The word “ fac-simile" Who'd slept the same as I.

in the title of the series signifies My Mabel-she has eyes of blue,

that the Bibles of the different And ringlets chestnut brown ;

sizes are printed so as to corresIf crowns be precious things, by Jove,

pond page for page throughShe ought to wear a crown!

out. One familiar with the place For Mabel, she is beautiful !

of a text in the splendid quarto Kings for her smiles might sigh ;

edition would find it in the identical She has a ploughman for her lord, That ploughman-faith am I!

relative spot on the tiny page of This should be excellent for a

pearl type. Altogether the study

of the Bible - in a certain way Penny Reading, or would make a capital bass song.

-seems being made almost too easy. A saying ran, “ Cross of

wood, bishop of gold; cross of gold, The Oxford Bible for Teachers. bishop of wood." Let us not add Facsimile series. London: Henry “ Bible of ease, reader of sloth; Frowde, Oxford University Press Bible of toil, reader of understandWarehouse.

ing."

THE

UNIVERSITY MAGAZINE.

APRIL, 1879.

THE OLD TIMES AND THE NEW.

In days when the world's business theory, then come in the doctrinaires, is brisk, and daily life is active, the dealers in

panaceas and most men, or at least most Eng- infallible specifics, the crotchetLishmen, theorise little. They are mongers of every kind. When the glad to take things as they are, last great trade depression was and make the most of them. upon this country, imaginative un

But when bad times come, and easiness worked itself up at last there is little to do, and less to be into white heat, and decided got for what is done, a different that the sources of the appaphase sets it. Change of circum- rently endless advance of ruin stances, and the depression caused must be probed and exposed once by disappointments, make the for all by a Royal Commission. hardest and most practical mind This done, the remedy, it was supturn in upon itself and become posed, would immediately appear. more imaginative. The business But it was forgotten that even a nature in its normal mood may Royal Commission is composed scorn and look down upon the of nothing more than men of like poetic nature ; but, after

all, faculties with ourselves, while those is the poet guilty of any wilder who were suffering most were changes of fancy, an

therefore more likely to be deeply inexplicable shifts of emotion, investigating into the reasons why. than are shown in the fre- And it was not known that, at the quently recurring state of things very moment of the wildest alarm, called panic? The panic of a mob trade, as it afterwards proved, had in a theatre must contain a whole insensibly turned, and the good Iliad of feelings if they could but things of commerce were advancing be analysed. The dumb panic of towards England upon the wave of sedate men of business is almost as a wonderful prosperity. terribly romantic, and, like any During panic, reproaches are wave of the unforeseen, may be piled upon the practical men of full of disastrous consequences.

business for neglecting theory; When such distrust is at its the theories that are being offered height, and the usually thoughtless the while for their acceptance crowd is ready to jump at any being such as that of the connection

more

moves

of the recurring spots in the sun the former large holdings of surwith the periodicities of famines plus stocks, and that these must be and trade depressions. Business worked off before the average demen, that is to say, are to regard mand can again come into play. our great luminary as a sort of Another view is that stagnation is meter by which to regulate their due to antiquated machinery of enterprise; and the merchant, before business being attempted to be committing himself to any con- used when the

conditions to which siderable undertaking, must look at it was once suitable are entirely the largest clock in the world to see changed. Another says free trade whether it is the right time to begin. is all a mistake, and we must revert The agriculturist, in his regard of to antiquated theories of protection. the seasons, and his homely pro- Who can decide for himself amidst gnostications of what is likely to such a chaos of views ? All that befal him in the way of harvest, the trader can do is to work on at has been looking at the minute- the best he can, or deal in what he hand only. He must now train can, and wait patiently as his his senses to a larger and keener fathers had to wait before him. view, and take in the meaning of These forefathers no doubt bore the almost invisible motion of the their yoke more meekly, being hour-hand—a hand that

without that intense modern appreround only in a cycle of years. The hensiveness which makes a time of theory is pretty and plausible, but trouble come before it comes, and how shall his mode of adoption of last after it is

gone. it be explained-in time enough

In one respect our modern and with certainty enough to do greater openness to impressions can him any service-to the desponding aid us in a way in which our foretinker, or the tailor who cannot ob- fathers had not an equal advantage tain payment of his little account? of profiting. The history of past Or how shall the theorist approach ages has been gradually unfolding the butcher and the baker, who are for us during recent decades; not reaping more profit than ever; or only have the chronological sethe candlestick maker, who is look- quences of departed dynasties, ing with dismay at the uncanny which from a business point of electric light?

view profit little, been explored, Our present commercial system but the real thoughts of ancient is so complex, that theorists for the peoples, and the chronicles of their most part are able to approach it actual, even of their domestic life, from many different sides, and to have been disclosed. see only a little piece at a time. History, not theory, is the true One sees one set of circumstances antidote to panic; theory is really and cries over-production; another more appropriate to times when studies another set and declares an enterprise is burning for some new opposite view—too little work done. world to conquer, than to a day One says the rate of wages paid to when a general pecuniary visitation the operative has done the mischief; is likely to produce only too much another attributes it to the lavish introspection, and so to make the expenditure of the master. One foot falter in the most ordinary cries we are beaten by cheap labour; undertaking. History is the best another, we are lagging behind disposer to steadiness and sobriety while others have been advancing of mind that we have it in our in skill. One says that the tele- power to turn to. The panic feel. graph has rendered unnecessary ing, in its exaggerated form, is that

no

the world is coming to an end at Aryan community now existing on once; history shows how very a remote tableland in Southern slowly and interruptedly it has Hindustan is the milkman; and moved, with breaks and pauses when a sly European once crept severer far than any present retro- at night into the temple, all the gression, which the actual proxi- insignia that he could find belongmity of a trouble and our excited ing to the ascetic priest were the imagination may cause to loom too simple apparatus of the dairy. largely and darkly upon us.

In archaic society there existed From the hustling of a certainly neither politics nor economics; there overstrained competition, men's was no law, no state, and worst minds are apt to turn to the con- of all, at least from our point of templation of some pretty ideal of view—there was individual. ancient socialism or communism, The eldest male of the line presided as a golden age from which they over each clan of associated househave somehow wandered. To their holds, and the customs of which he fancy, pictures of life of this tran- was the instrument, whether they quil order can readily be found in clashed or not with what we know the records of old-fashioned times. as individual will, were the immovNothing can be a greater delusion. able law and bondage of every Unfortunately it is not

unit in the corporation. The clan Truth the poet sings, was the individual, and, if we have That a sorrow's crown of sorrow is re- competitive strife and even hatred membering happier things ;

at times one with another, the clan else we might fairly argue, con

had not only absence of sympathy versely, that to endeavour to live for everything outside its own in memory the life of our Aryan narrow circle, but its absolute ancestors, the noblest race of the indifference towards members of ancient world, would bring us quite other households was not infrea thrill of gladness, for there is quently developed into active hosindeed little in it that, if we were tility and the feud of blood. fairly put to it, we should not The connecting link that bound sorely shrink from taking in ex- the family together was not sweet change for even the most blighted affection subsisting between its career of our own.

members, but their common relaThe Aryan household, or clan, tion (evidenced by the custom of was no pretty idyllic association, setting apart sacred portions from where love and affection reigned, the common meal, and by the and all were independent and worship of the hearth) was found equal and harmonious.

It was, as

in their unanimous attitude towards recent investigators, from Sir Henry the lares or spirits of their departed Sumner Maine to Dr. Hearn* of ancestors, who were still regarded Melbourne, have made plain, a as constituting the heads of the sort of religious joint-stock com- family and guides of the housepany, in which the managing hold. director held supreme and arbitrary Marriage was compulsory, and power. There is no idea of pro- subject to the direction of the fanity in our illustration ; the household tyrant for the time highest religious functionary in an

being.

Over the labour of his

• The Aryan Household. By W. E. Hearn, LL.D., Dean of the Faculty of Law in the University of Melbourne. London: Longmans, Green, and Co. Melbourne : G. Robertson. 1879.

our

subjects, whether boys or grown- little, now in one direction, now ir up men, his power was absolute. another, but is never wholly rapt A man could not make a will—he by any super-terrestrial idea. A had nothing of his own to dispose this is the earth, why should any of. A woman was in perpetual other event be expected ? A vast tutelage-she might be under her horde arrives here, is put through father, she might be under her certain exercises, and retires. In husband, she might be under a one era some things are done better distant male relative, provided the than others. A great tradition power of the clan vested in him. is passed on from one period to The House Father might expose another, a perhaps far greater his children after birth, he might acquirement is lost. In the whole sell his son, he might establish his range of the past nothing can wife's guilt in his own tribunal, be found absolutely satisfactory, and with perfect legality kill her nothing more suitable to us than

- with perfect legality, that is to own times. What we call say, according to clan law, which civilisation has its advantages ; it was the only law.

we indulge in the communistie A Semitic sect, the Essenes, in dream, to approach which we have certain respects resemble more the first to know how to find rest in a popular notion of communal life; self-denying religion, not in an but their bond of union was re- alluring sloth, we find ourselves ligious. And without some strict at the outset face to face with attachment to an ideal, the pro- certain unpleasantresses, trivial fessed object of which is the indeed, but enough to turn back destruction of individual selfish- any but the most earnest. With ness, no community can hang the Essenes, for instance, even together for a generation. With their clothes were in common. human nature as it is, and in a They had a store of rough cloaks process of constant replenishment in the winter, and in the summer with human stuff endowed with cheap garments without sleeves the same lack of alertness to any and when anyone wanted one, he call but that of selfishness, it can- went to the box and took it, pre not be expected that such a society sumably putting it back at the should become multitudinous; and end of the season for which it wa: indeed history shows that religious suited. communities have been both rare The whole movement of modern and limited, and in their constitu- societies, as Sir H. S. Maine puta tion very eclectic and select. A it, being one from status to con few intense spirits may lead for a tract—that is from being born to time, by their personal influence a position to making it for onesel charming a dull generality to rise -it is open ground for theory above and beyond itself; but determine whither we are going before any large bulk of mankind if we follow the direction of th is seized upon, the second genera

last thousand or two of years tion of followers is slipping back The small remains of feuda into easier life and becoming little customs—entail, the respect pai more than nominal, or is lost in to the elder son, the reverend quibbles and quarrels upon the of servant for master, the powe meanings of its own misunderstood of position by birth-seem doctrines. So far as a few thousand be slowly vanishing; who cat years of history give their lesson, tell what free combinations are the mass may be moved up a come, when society shall consis

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