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(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that question, sir, under the privilege of the fifth amendment.

Mr. JACKSON. Mr. Counsel, would you repeat the question, please ? I am sorry, I didn't get it.

Mr. TAVENNER. The question was this: Will you state to the committee what your employment has been since the completion of your education in 1938 ?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. TAVENNER. What was the first position that you took after leaving school in Paris?

Mr. WIIEELER. Well, sir, I refuse to answer that on the ground mentioned earlier.

Mr. JACKSON. Is it the contention of the witness that a true answer to that question, as to all of the employment since his graduation from college, a true answer, would be incriminating?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. I have already answered that question, sir.
Mr. JACKSON. You decline to answer?
Mr. WHEELER. Yes, sir.

Mr. DOYLE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask this question of the witness: Have you been employed since 1938 ?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. WHEELER. Same answer, sir.

Mr. DOYLE. Have you been receiving charity since 1938 in any form?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that, sir.

Mr. DOYLE. Have you independent sources of income so it hasn't been necessary for you to be employed since 1938!

Mr. WHEELER. Well, sir, I refuse to answer that on the ground mentioned earlier.

Mr. SCHERER. Mr. Chairman.
Mr. VELDE. Mr. Scherer.

Mr. SCHERER. I ask that you direct the witness to answer first the two questions that were asked by Mr. Tavenner, and then as many as were asked by Mr. Doyle that you see fit so that the record may be clear.

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. VELDE. I would like to do that one at a time. Of course I can see no reason why the witness should refuse to answer any tions that have been asked by counsel or Mr. Doyle. I see no reason why they would tend to incriminate you in any way.

So far as the question, can you repeat the question that you asked, or shall we have the court reporter read it?

Mr. TAVENNER. No; I can repeat it. The first question was this: Will you state to the committee, please, how you have been employed since you completed your educational training in Paris in 1938?

Mr. WHEELER. My answer to that, sir, is that I refuse to answer on the grounds of possible incrimination.

Mr. SCHERER. Now, Mr. Chairman-
Mr. VELDE. You are directed to answer that question.
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

of the quesMr. WHEELER. I decline to answer on the basis of the fifth amendment; I refuse to be a witness against myself.

Mr. VELDE. Will you proceed with the next question, Mr. Counsel ?

Mr. TAVENNER. My next question was, What was the first employment which you accepted after leaving Paris in 1938 ?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. Same answer.
Mr. VELDE. That is, you refuse to answer?
Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer.

Mr. VELDE. You are directed to answer that particular question, Mr. Witness.

Mr. TAVENNER. Were you student or professor at Yale University in 1938 or 1939 after leaving Paris, France ?

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that question on the ground(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. TAVENNER. I suggest, Mr. Chairman, that the witness be directed to answer the question.

Mr. VELDE. Yes, as I said before, there is no possible way in the Chair's opinion or in the opinion of the members of the committee that that can incriminate you, so you are directed to answer the question.

Mr. WHEELER. May I hear the question again, please?
Mr. TAVENNER. Will you read the question, please?

(The question was read by the reporter as follows: "Were you student or professor at Yale University in 1938 or 1939 after leaving Paris, France ?")

Mr. WHEELER. I wasn't professor at Yale.
Mr. TAVENNER. You were a professor ?
Mr. WHEELER. I was not a professor, no.
Mr. TAVENNER. Were you instructor at Yale University ?
Mr. WHEELER. Yes, sir.
Mr. TAVENNER. During what years were you instructor?
Mr. WHEELER. 1938 and 1939.

Mr. TAVENNER. What was the field in which you occupied the position of an instructor?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. Government.
Mr. TAVENNER. Government?
Mr. WHEELER. Yes.
Mr. TAVENNER. How long did you say you were instructor at Yale?
Mr. WHEELER. One year.

Mr. TAVENNER. That was from the fall of 1938 to the summer of 1939, is that correct?

Mr. WHEELER. Yes, sir.

Mr. TAVENNER. During the period of your instructorship at Yale were you affiliated

with the Teacher's Union, Federation of Teachers Union, American Federation of Labor ?

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds mentioned earlier.

Mr. SCHERER. Well, Mr. Chairman, I can't possibly see, if this witness is affiliated with the Teachers' Union, the American Federation of Labor, how that could possibly incriminate him, and I am going to ask you to direct him to answer that question.

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Nr. VELDE. Yes, the Chair concurs, and you are directed to answer that question.

Mr. SCHERER. I think the record should show that the witness sits mute.

Mr. VELDE. The record will so indicate.
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Nr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that question on the grounds mentioned earlier.

Mr. TAVENNER. After leaving Yale University did you accept a position in Washington ?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the ground of possible self-incrimination.

Mr. DOYLE. Mr. Chairman, may I ask this question of the gentleman: What professional societies were you a member of while you were at Yale; that is, professional societies?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. VELDE. Fraternities!

Mr. DOYLE. Yes, fraternities, or intellectual groups or study groups; any.

Mr. WHEELER. I don't recall being a member of any professional groups.

Mr. DOYLE. Were you ever a member of Phi Beta Kappa ?
Mr. WHEELER. No.
Mr. DOYLE. Any other scholastic societies?
Mr. WHEELER. I don't recall any.

Mr. DOYLE. Well, think a minute. I am asking you a fair question. I don't think it would incriminate you if you stated being a member of any professional society, would it?

(At this point, Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Nr. DOYLE. Don't you recall, or were you ever a member of any society as a result of your having won your degree?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. Do you just mean at Yale University?
Mr. DOYLE. Yale or later.
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. I don't remember any such organization.

Mr. DOYLE. You have no recollection then, I understand, of your ever having joined any scholarship group or professional group to which you were entitled to become a member as a result of being a graduate of the University of Paris or instructor at Yale?

Mr. WHEELER. I don't remember any such, sir.
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. WHEELER. May I ask, do you mean while I was at Yale University?

Mr. DOYLE. Well, the import of my question, sir, is this: You are a graduate of the University of Paris; you were instructor at Yale University. Now, I am merely wondering what professional or scholarship groups, honorary societies, intellectual societies, you were a member of as a result of your achievements in scholarship.

Mr. WHEELER. I can't remember a single one, sir.

Mr. DOYLE. All right.
Mr. JACKSON. Mr. Chairman.
Mr. VELDE. Mr. Jackson.
Mr. JACKSON. Were you ever, let us say, a member of the Elks?
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. No, sir.
Mr. JACKSON. Any service clubs such as Rotary, Lions, Kiwanis?
Mr. WHEELER. Not that I recall.
Mr. JACKSON. German-American Bund?
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. Is that asked as a serious question ?
Mr. JACKSON. That is asked as a serious question.
(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)
Mr. WHEELER. The answer is no.
Mr. JACKSON. Silver Shirts?
Mr. WHEELER. No.
Mr. JACKSON. Communist Party?

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that on the grounds of possible self-incrimination.

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. TAVENNER. Mr. Wheeler, according to the Los Angeles Times of November 18, 1953, there was testimony before a committee of the Senate in which there was read into evidence a letter from Mr. J. Edgar Hoover, Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, addressed to General Vaughn, in which it is said:

The Bureau's information at this time indicates that the following persons were participants in this operation or were utilized by principals in this ring for the purpose of obtaining data in which the Soviet is interested.

Among those named is the name of Donald Wheeler, formerly with the Office of Strategic Services, and then on the same day I find in the San Francisco, Call-Bulletin of Wednesday, November 18–

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

Mr. TAVENNER (continuing). A news article datelined Portland, Oreg., November 18, 1953, which reads as follows:

Donald Niven Wheeler, named yesterday by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover as once a spy suspect, said the allegation was entirely false and malicious.

Did you make the statement attributed to you that the allegation of Mr. Hoover was entirely false and malicious ?

Mr. WHEELER. Well, may I see that paper ?

Mr. TAVENNER. Yes, sir. I offer the paper in evidence, Mr. Chairman, and ask that it be marked “Donald Niven Wheeler Exhibit No. 1."

Mr. VELDE. Do you ask that it be introduced into the record ?
Mr. TAVENNER. Yes, sir.

Mr. VELDE. Without objection it will be admitted into the record at this point.

(News article from San Francisco Call-Bulletin of Wednesday, November 18, 1953, was received in evidence as Donald Niven Wheeler Exhibit No. 1.)

DONALD NIVEN WHEELER EXHIBIT NO. 1

[From San Francisco Call-Bulletin, November 18, 1953)

DAIRY FARMER SCORES LISTING AS SPY SUSPECT

PORTLAND, OREG., November 18 (AP).-Donald Niven Wheeler, named yesterday by FBI Director J. Edgar Hoover as once a spy suspect, said the allegation was “entirely false and malicious."

Wheeler, who lives on a dairy farm in Sequim, Wash., was reported by the Portland Oregonian as saying:

“Possibly the Republicans think the spy scare will take the public mind off the administration's problems such as the present depression in agriculture, the slump in foreign trade, and other current difficulties.”

Wheeler's name was 1 of 12 mentioned as possible Soviet spies in a letter introduced as testimony in a Senate Internal Security Subcommittee hearing on the Harry Dexter White case.

Wheeler was identified in testimony as formerly with the Office of Strategic Services.

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that question.

Mr. TAVENNER. You refuse to state whether or not you were correctly reported in the news article bearing your name?

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse on the grounds of the fifth amendment.
Mr. TAVENNER. Well, was the statement true, or was it false?
Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the same grounds.

Mr. TAVENNER. Were you employed in the Treasury Department or in the Office of Strategic Services at any time?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the same ground.

Mr. TAVENNER. While you were at school at Oxford, England, was there an organization in the school attended by you known as the Young Communist League of England ?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that, sir, on the same ground. Mr. TAVENNER. Were you affiliated in any manner with a branch of the Young Communist School of England or any other branch of the Communist Party while attending school at Oxford?

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that on the same ground.

Mr. TAVENNER. I want to correct my question to read “Young Communist League of England" instead of "Young Communist School of England." Does that change your answer in any way? Mr. WHEELER. No; same answer, sir.

Mr. VELDE. You did have a Rhodes scholarship to Oxford, did you not?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.) Mr. WHEELER. Yes, sir. Mr. VELDE. During what years did you attend under that Rhodes scholarship?

Mr. WHEELER. Around 1935 to 1938.

Mr. TAVENNER. Did you affiliate with the Communist Party of the United States at any time after 1938 ?

Mr. WHEELER. I refuse to answer that for the reason mentioned earlier.

Mr. TAVENNER. Are you familiar with the testimony taken before this committee in 1948 when Elizabeth Bentley was a witness ?

(At this point Mr. Wheeler conferred with Mr. Andersen.)

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