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moral character, proper education, and physical fitness required by the board of governors of the school.”
The student enters the academy with the maritime profession as his definite and primary objective. The entire course, both academic and practical, is designed to prepare him for this objective. Elective subjects in automation principles, electronics, and nuclear power, are provided for midshipmen of the first class. In addition to purely academic or practical instruction, the general experience acquired by the students living together on the base and aboard ship, provides invaluable training for their future careers.
The students also receive instruction in naval science under the auspices of the Navy Department. The mission of the Department of Naval Science is to participate in the education and training which is afforded by the California Maritime Academy to the extent of teaching naval science courses in order that vessels manned by merchant marine officers may operate efficiently with the Navy in time of war.
The course of study is an intensive 3-year program of education at the college level. The academy is in session every month of the year and produces an instruction time similar to the usual 4-year course of study in a regular college or university.
Students may earn either a bachelor of science degree in marine engineering or a bachelor of science degree in nautical science upon successful completion of the program, providing they have successfully passed their Coast Guard license examination.
All midshipmen meeting the physical and educational requirements of the Coast Guard examination are licensed as third officers or third assistant engineers and are qualified in these capacities to serve aboard any American-flag ship. In addition, the majority receive inactive reserve commissions as ensign in the U.S. Navy or U.S. Coast Guard.
For purposes of organizational management and to develop a high spirit of morale and a sense of discipline and personal responsibility, the student body is organized as a corps of midshipmen.
A military routine is followed. Midshipmen are required to be provided with and wear uniforms similar in design to those worn at the U.S. Naval Academy. A schedule for classes, drills, meals, study hours, physical training, inspections of quarters and personal cleanliness, reveille and taps, is prescribed. Military etiquette is observed as a matter of gentlemanly courtesy between instructors and associates.
While the major emphasis is placed upon preparing midshipmen to perform all the duties required in connection with operating and maintaining a ship, the qualities of leadership, personal responsibility, ethical character, and gentlemanly conduct are highly stressed.
The Academy is situated on a 67-acre campus adjacent to Carquinez Straits in Vallejo, Calif. A deep water pier provides berthing space for the training ship Golden Bear which the academy has operated continuously for the last 23 years.
The Golden Bear is operated entirely by the midshipmen under the supervision of the Academy's licensed officer-instructors. The Golden Bear provides a modern training vessel for the actual performance of deck and engineering skills at sea. The ship is fitted with classrooms, a machine shop, and the most modern equipment, including steam- and diesel-powered auxiliaries as well as turboelectric propulsion. Reading and recreation rooms provide the necessary facilities for off-duty
activities. She also acts as a dormitory for 75 midshipmen throughout the year.
We believe that there is no substitute for the actual preparation and operation of the ship to develop the skills required of a ship's officer and to firmly integrate theoretical with practical knowledge. We also believe that this must be done progressively in a series of not less than three cruises between scholastic periods so that each individual may learn to apply this newly acquired theoretical knowledge to increasingly difficult practical problems, and to assume progressively greater responsibility commensurate with this knowledge.
During the sea training trimester, we limit our written work to practical navigation, diagraming the various engineroom components, and the preparation of appropriate notebooks. Watch standing under the supervision of our own faculty members is the basic component of this practical instruction. Since the number of watches available to a given student is a function of days at sea versus students embarked, we try to get maximum underway at sea time during each cruise. This generally amounts to a 15,000-mile cruise-the optimum number of midshipmen that can be usefully trained during a cruise is from 275 to 300.
In addition to studies, the midshipmen participate in an extensive program of intramural sports; tennis, basketball, swimming, water polo, modified football, rifle team, and golf.
Over the last several years, our average enrollment has been 250 midshipmen. I might add that each year we start off with a number of 275, and it averages out over the 3-year term to 250.
I am proud of the record of our graduates. A recent survey of our graduates by the alumni association shows that from 1961 to 1969, from 95 to 100 percent went to sea upon graduation, and from 1 to 5 percent entered the Armed Forces. In the last 10 years, 30 to 35 percent attained top license of master or chief engineer. Many of them attained this rank in a minimum of from 11,2 to 6 years. I believe there is a correction on your paper there. I think they had 11/2.
The percentage of graduates remaining at sea with merchant marine after 5-10 years is from 35 to 40 percent; those entering the Armed Forces as a career, usually the Navy, is from 12 to 15 percent; those who remain with maritime industry ashore or in related fields is from 25 to 35 percent, and, finally, those leaving the sea or maritime industry completely is about 5 percent. I might add that in recent times for the last 5 years since there have been a number of jobs available, they are pretty much staying at sea.
Fifteen of our California Maritime Academy graduates are operating nuclear engineers. They are serving on the NS Savannah with General Electric, Navy Nuclear at Monterey, or Westinghouse Nuclear Powerplant installation at Mare Island, Calif.
In February 1968, a task force of 14 prominent civilians appointed by Governor Reagan made a complete survey of the California Maritime Academy, its facilities and operation. In that report, the following observations were made: (1) While the Academy's primary objective is to train students for the maritime profession, their skills can be utilized effectively in business and industry as well; and (2) The Academy is operating its physical plant in an efficient manner. Its facilities are very modest and utilitarian with no frills. Some of the buildings and facilities for instruction and housing of students are substandard and inadequate.
They recommended to the Governor the following:
(A) Develop a 5-year plan to bring the Academy up to California educational standards for facilities.
The Superintendent and his staff are running a tight ship. The teaching staff also acts as monitors and counselors. The students maintain their own quarters and the dormitory building. Student performance and discipline are well above comparable students of State colleges and universities, particularly when considering the substandard library, housing facilities, and shop equipment.
A 5-year plan has been developed and approved by the Board of Governors and is presently being implemented.
(B) Obtain additional assistance from the State Department of Education. Central staff assistance in Sacramento would be helpful in:
(a). Working with State personnel board in establishing proper job descriptions and placement of specialists jobs that are peculiar to personnel assigned to the training ship to assure equitable treatment of assigned jobs.
(6) Need for additional personnel for certain workloads that have steadily increased on maintenance of diesel equipment. The need for a diesel technician is indicated.
(c) Handling of commissary personnel especially on the training cruises, which creates a staffing problem.
(d) Evaluations of offices clerical load and determining whether certain functions could be simplified.
All these have been corrected by the rewriting of job descriptions and reclassifying personnel, granting overtime payments and increasing salaries of certain ship personnel.
Funds for additional mathematics instructor and a laboratory technician were approved in this year's support budget.
The next recommendation was to enlarge the present library and increase its number of books.
Funds were made available last year for working drawings of library and this year $240,000 for construction of a new library building was made available in 1969–70 budget. Bids have been awarded and construction starts this week.
Install additional dormitory facilities.
Five-year construction plan includes funds for working drawings in 1969-70 budget. We have those drawings now. Construction funds will be requested in 1970–71 budget.
Establish student fees to cover costs of care and subsistence approximately $1,000 per year and education of $150 per student.
In 1968 student fees were increased from average $678 to $837 by the board of governors. It is the present intention of the Administration to request an additional increase per student of another $150 which will bring the cost per student to an average of $987. They recommended $1,000.
Determine if additional Federal assistance could and should be solicited.
It was decided by the board of governors that Federal assistance should be solicited. The board implemented this recommendation by requesting congressional representatives from California to introduce a bill in Congress to increase Federal support.
Subsequently, the superintendent of the academy met with the five other academy superintendents and agreed to sponsor a joint bill. The content of this legislation calls for a flat grant of $250,000 per year plus a minimum of $600 per student, replacing the present level of $75,000 per year plus $600 per student. This bill sponsored by Congressman Hathaway of Maine in the 91st Congress, numbered H.R. 8785.
The board of governors of the California Maritime Academy unanimously endorsed this bill. I might add that the Legislature of the State of California has sent a resolution to the President and members of Congress that they thought the Government should be doing more to assist in the support of the academy.
It should be noted that in 1958 when the Merchant Marine Act of 1958 was passed, Federal support amounted to 29.7 percent of the academy's operating costs and is presently 17.9 percent.
The academy's support budget for 1969-70 totals $1,224,163 of which $803,920 (65.7 percent) is general fund support from the State, $219,000 (17.9 percent) is Federal support, and $201,243 (16.4 percent) student fee and miscellaneous reimbursement support.
In a release of remarks by Mr. A. E. Gibson, Maritime Administrator of the U.S. Department of Commerce before American Merchant Marine Conference on October 15, 1969, he stated that:
President Nixon's new maritime policy will give us the opportunity to make a new start. It will reaffirm the intent of the Merchant Marine Act of 1936-to provide and maintain a fleet built and operated under U.S. flag, capable of carrying our domestic and substantial part of our foreign waterborne trade, and serving as a naval auxiliary in a national emergency.
Gentlemen, if this policy is put into effect, the officers to man these highly mechanized, sophisticated ships must come from the graduates of our maritime academies. You can have a merchant marine with first class officers even though they operate second class ships, but you cannot operate first class ships with second class officers that are inadequately trained.
The American underwriters have called for a substantial upgrading of seagoing personnel, but recognized that “crewing a ship with capable and responsible seamen is becoming increasingly difficult."
This report pointed out that 79 percent of the casualties in 1967 and 64 percent of the casualties in 1968 were caused by human failures, and gentlemen, that is very expensive, when you are dealing with ships up to $50 million or more.
We believe that the discipline, dedication and high professional standards instilled in our graduates are the vital ingredients of a seaworthy ship. These qualities of character and professionalism must be passed down from the master through the licensed chain of command. It is only through the quality of leadership of our merchant marine officers that the maritime industry, both ashore and afloat, will be able to compete economically and competitively with those of other maritime nations. It is of foremost concern to our Nation's welfare, both in peace and in national emergency:
It is my plea that this committee in its great wisdom and judgment will recognize the need of more Federal support funds for the State maritime academies and unanimously support the passage of the Hathaway bill-H.R. 8785, in order that we may continue to carry out our mission of developing top-notch merchant marine officers for the finest ships afloat and the world's best merchant marine.
Thank you, gentlemen, for the privilege and honor of appearing before your committee.
Mr. MURPHY. Thank you, Admiral Williamson.
Admiral, do you receive Federal funds from sources other than from the Maritime Administration?
Admiral WILLIAMSON. I do not.
Admiral WILLIAMSON. No; it is because we are a 3-year college. Evidently that is one of the requirements, or that you are recognized by the Western Confederation of Colleges, and because we are not a 4-year college, this is one of the penalties that is placed upon us. Mr. MURPHY. How many years do you offer?
Admiral WILLIAMSOx. Three years. We go all year round. We have a trimester period. Midshipmen come in about the 11th of August and they graduate the 26th of July.
Mr. MURPHY. I am going to ask the staff to request the heads of other academies to provide the committee with a table for a source of their revenues and ask them to provide it for the years 1963 through 1969 or 1970, with an estimate for 1970, the Federal funding of the academy, and break the Federal funding down to what agency of the Federal Government provides that funding.
That is, HEW, or HUD, if there is any dormitory involved.
Also, I will ask for State funding and any funding from any endowment or that type of funding that might be available to the school and then student fees as a final source. I will ask the staff to write to each of the Superindents asking them for those figures so we can have a comparative base, and also to put down the percentages of their total budget and expenditure that each of these lines represent so that we can compare the academies.
(The information referred to follows:)