Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence
Cambridge University Press, 9 окт. 2006 г.
Some rebel groups abuse noncombatant populations, while others exhibit restraint. Insurgent leaders in some countries transform local structures of government, while others simply extract resources for their own benefit. In some contexts, groups kill their victims selectively, while in other environments violence appears indiscriminate, even random. This book presents a theory that accounts for the different strategies pursued by rebel groups in civil war, explaining why patterns of insurgent violence vary so much across conflicts. It does so by examining the membership, structure, and behavior of four insurgent movements in Uganda, Mozambique, and Peru. Drawing on interviews with nearly two hundred combatants and civilians who experienced violence firsthand, it shows that rebels' strategies depend in important ways on how difficult it is to launch a rebellion. The book thus demonstrates how characteristics of the environment in which rebellions emerge constrain rebel organization and shape the patterns of violence that civilians experience.
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activist African Angola areas armed attacks Ayacucho Baganda base cadres campaign captured central challenge civilian populations coca Colombia combatants commanders committed communities conflict contexts cooperation develop economic endowments ethnic external Frelimo government forces guerrilla Guerrilla Warfare Guzm´an Huallaga Valley Ibid ideological incentives individuals insurgent insurgent groups internal Interview investments Kampala killed leadership levels of violence Lima looting Luwero Luwero Triangle Marıngu`e membership ment militants military mobilization movement Mozambican Mozambique Museveni Nampula Province National Resistance Army November NRA’s Obote operations opportunistic organizational participation party patterns peasants People’s percent Peru Peru’s policies political potential punish r´egulos rebel behavior rebel groups rebel leaders rebel organizations rebellion recruits regime regional committee Renamo response rural Semuto Sendero Luminoso Sendero–Huallaga set in place shared Shining Path social endowments Sofala Province soldiers strategies structure targeted Tingo Marıa tion Uganda UNITA University Press UNLA villages Yoweri Museveni zones
Стр. 181 - I) and which take place in the territory of a High Contracting Party between its armed forces and dissident armed forces or other organized armed groups which, under responsible command, exercise such control over a part of its territory as to enable them to carry out sustained and concerted military operations and to implement this Protocol.
Стр. 181 - In the case of an armed conflict not of an international character, serious violations of article 3 common to the four Geneva Conventions of 12 August 1949, namely, any of the following acts committed against persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness...
Стр. 181 - Persons taking no active part in the hostilities, including members of armed forces who have laid down their arms and those placed hors de combat by sickness, wounds, detention, or any other cause, shall in all circumstances be treated humanely, without any adverse distinction founded on race, colour, religion or faith, sex, birth or wealth, or any other similar criteria. To this end the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever...
Стр. 181 - To this end, the following acts are and shall remain prohibited at any time and in any place whatsoever with respect to the above-mentioned persons: (a) Violence to life and person, in particular murder of all kinds, mutilation, cruel treatment and torture; (b) Taking of hostages; (c) Outrages upon personal dignity, in particular humiliating and degrading treatment; (d) The passing of sentences and the carrying out of executions without previous judgment pronounced by a regularly constituted court,...
Стр. 30 - Robert D. Putnam, Making Democracy Work: Civic Traditions in Modern Italy (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1993); Francis Fukuyama, Trust: The Social Virtues and the Creation of Prosperity (New York: Free Press, 1995); and Robert D.
Стр. 10 - But the guerrilla fighter, as a person conscious of a role in the vanguard of the people, must have a moral conduct that shows him to be a true priest of the reform to which he aspires. To the stoicism imposed by the difficult conditions of warfare should be added an austerity born of rigid self-control that will prevent a single excess, a single slip, whatever the circumstances. The guerrilla soldier should be an ascetic.
Стр. 144 - Because guerrilla warfare basically derives from the masses and is supported by them, it can neither exist nor flourish if it separates itself from their sympathies and cooperation.
Стр. 12 - Acts of sabotage are very important. It is necessary to distinguish clearly between sabotage, a revolutionary and highly effective method of warfare, and terrorism, a measure that is generally ineffective and indiscriminate in its results, since it often makes victims of innocent people and destroys a large number of lives that would be valuable to the revolution.
Стр. 264 - FNLA), founded in 1962; and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (Uniao Nacional para a Independencia Total de Angola — UNITA), founded in 1966. The victory of the MPLA and Cuban forces brought recognition to the MPLA government by the OAU and by most non-African countries. The MPLA-Workers' Party (MPLA-Partido de Trabalho, or MPLA-PT), a Marxist-Leninist vanguard party, was created in December 1 977.
Стр. 11 - We are not interested in politics but only in the profession of arms." It is vital that these simple-minded militarists be made to realize the relationship between politics and military affairs. Military action is a method used to attain a political goal. In all armies, obedience of the subordinates to their superiors must be exacted. This is true in the case of guerrilla discipline, but the basis for guerrilla discipline must be the individual conscience. With guerrillas a discipline of compulsion...
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