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24. Its population is about two millions of inhabitants. Amsterdam is the capital city.

25. Germany is a very large country, situated in the middle of Europe ; very remarkable for its being divided into a great number of independent states.

26. The air is temperate and wholesome, but more inclinable to cold than heat.

27. The soil is very fertile for corn and pastures, and in some places, especially along the Rhine, it produces large quantities of wine, known by the name of Rhenish.

28. Its population is upwards of 25 millions. The chief city is Dresden.

29. The manners of the people are, in general, open, free, good soldiers, inured to labour, quick in the sciences, but haughty; dexterous in manufactures, and fruitful in inventions.

30. Austria. The territories or states of the House of Austria* are very considerable, containing a population of 25 millions of inhabitants. Its chief city is Vienna,

31. The general character of the Austrians is, that they are sensible, polite, versed in art and science, and warlike.

32. Hungary is a very large kingdom, subject to the house of Austria ; containing a population of eight millions. The chief city is Buda.

* The Austrian dominions have very much varied in extent at different periods, and at this time form an extensive and powerful empire. The ancient kingdoms of Bohemia, Moravia, and Hungary, are comprised in it, besides a portion of Italy and Poland.

33. The inhabitants are well made, brave, hardy, and military; but haughty, proud, and vindictive.

34. Poland was formerly a very large kingdom, and stood very conspicuous in the eyes of the world; but having been divided for several years by civil war, it was at last reduced to such a state of weakness, that Austria, Russia, and Prussia concerted a plan of dividing it between them, which they did, after having forced the king to abdicate his crown.

35. Poland contains nine millions of inhabitants. Its chief city is Warsaw.

36. The manners of the Poles are fastidious among the nobles, and simple among the people.

37. They are well made, brave, hospitable, and honest; but are said to be great eaters and drinkers.

38. Turkey is a very large empire, having a part in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

39. The population in Europe is about eight millions, in Asia 10, and in Africa* two millions five hundred thousand; making in the whole 20 millions five hundred thousand.

40. The Turks are a strong and well made people, but dislike labour, and derive no advantage from the fine soil they inhabit.

41. They care nothing for science, and are very ignorant; but they are hospitable, charitable, and trust-worthy in trade.

42. France is a very large and populous country; containing about 32 millions of inhabitants, 780 cities, and 48,000 towns and villages.

* The country here alluded to is Egypt.

43. The air is pure and wholesome; and the soil, which is agreeably diversified, produces all the necessaries of life, and among its luxuries, some of the most excellent wines.

44. The French are a polished people, gallant and courageous, but light, inconstant, and' excessively vain.

They are very fond of the arts and sciences, and of games and exhibitions.

45. Switzerland is a very mountainous country. It contains about two millions of inhabitants.

46. The manners of the Swiss are simple, mild, hospitable, and distinguished for their fidelity.

47. The men are very strong and robust, generally chosen by several nations for their military service.

48. The women are thought handsome, have many good qualities, and are in general very industrious.

49. Italy is the most celebrated country in Europe, having been formerly the seat of the Roman empire, and also the seat of the Pope.

50. It is so fine and fruitful a country, that it is commonly called the garden of Europe.

51. The air is, in general, temperate and wholesome. The soil is very fertile, and produces wheat, rice, wine, oil, oranges, citrons, pomegranates, &c., and all sorts of fruits, flowers, honey, and silk; also sugar and cotton.

52. The Italians are very polite, sensible, and fond of the arts. They excel in sculpture, painting, poetry, and music; but then they are luxurious,

addicted to the most criminal pleasures, revengeful, and use all sorts of artifices to destroy their enemies.

53. Its population is supposed to be about 20 millions.

54. Portugal is rather a small country, containing about four millions of inhabitants. Its capital is Lisbon.

55. Though the climate of Spain and Portugal is the same, that is, under the same parallel of latitude,* yet the air of the latter is much more temperate than that of the former, on account of its bordering on the sea.

56. The Portuguese are in general grave, 'austere, and superstitious; but sensible, and well informed in arts, sciences, and trade.

57. Spain is a large country, about the size of France. Its population is about 11 millions. Madrid is the capital city.

58. In Spain, lemons, oranges, almonds, &c. grow naturally, the same as apples or pears grow in England.

59. The air of Spain is generally very hot, which frequently obliges the inhabitants to lie down after dinner, and sit up late at night.

60. The Spaniards are very proud and haughty; grave, serious, and politic, and faithful to their king; of which the late patriotic struggle with France gives us a noble specimen. They are celebrated for their sobriety and probity, but their idle

* The same distance from the Equator, meaning that the sun shines as direct over Portugal as it does over Spain.

ness makes them a miserable people, though they live in one of the finest countries upon the earth.

61. England is so called from the Angles, who settled in these parts in the year 449. It is sometimes called GREAT BRITAIN ; then it includes Scotland, which is not separated from England by

the sea.

Irish sea.

62. The population of England, including the principality of Wales, is upwards of nine millions.

The population of Scotland is about two millions. 63. Ireland is separated from England by the

Its population is six millions. 64. The general character of the English is, that they are serious, enterprising, blunt, haughty, and not communicative; that they excel in the mechanic arts, * are fond of knowledge, and love their country. 65. They are much inclined to commerce, are the best sailors and soldiers in the world, and very partial to liquors. 66. The Scotch have a sound judgment, are quick and penetrating, affable and hospitable, good soldiers and sailors. 67. The Irish are lively and 'hospitable, good soldiers and sailors, and are very brave: but irritable, addicted to liquor, and superstitious.


Those which require the labour f the body and hands.

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