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washing promote the health, vigour, and growth of the body. 7. It may satisfy you also, that the various minute attentions, in the conduct of your education, which at present may seem to be superfuous and 'irksome, are of real importance, by removing those causes which would retard your progress towards manlystrength and mental excellence.
8. For every habit of awkwardness impairs some useful power of action; and as the moss preys on the nutritious juices of the beech, so false opinions and principles despoil the mind of a correspondent portion of knowledge, truth, and virtue.
Poor Richard,* or the Way to Wealth,
6. Com-mis'-si-on-ers, s. pl. persons acting under the Crown, in the
management of public offices, &c. 11. Pro-di-ga"-li-ty, s. waste, extravagance. 14. Bai'-liff, s. a subordinate or under officer appointed by the she
riff to serve writs, &c. It also means a steward or overseer. 16. Mit-tens, s. pl gloves without fingers.
Ca'-ble, s. a thick rope to which the anchor of a ship is fastened.
1. As I was riding out one day for pleasure, I saw a great number of people collected together at an auction of merchants' goods, where I stopped and made one of the number. 2. The hour of sale not being come, they were conversing on the badness of the times; and one of the company called to a plain, clean old man, with white locks, “ Pray, Father Abrahani, what think you of the times? Will not those heavy taxes quite ruin the country? How shall we be ever able to pay them? What would you advise us to ?” 3. Father Abraham stood up, and replied, “ If you would have my advice, I will give it you in short: ‘for a word to the wise is enough, as Poor Richard says.” 4. They joined in desiring him to speak his mind, and gathering round him, he proceeded as follows :
* Poor Richard, the title of an old American Almanack, written by Dr. Franklin, for the year 1758.
5. “Friends," says he, “ the taxes are, indeed, very heavy; and if those laid on by the government were the only ones we had to pay, we might more easily discharge them ; but we have many others, and much more grievous to some of us. 6. We are taxed twice as much by our idleness, three times as much by our pride, and four times as much by our folly: and from these taxes the commissioners cannot ease, or deliver us, by allowing any abatement. 7. However, let us hearken to good advice, and something may be done for us ; 'God helps them that help themselves,' as Poor Richard says.
8. “ It would be thought a hard government that should tax its people one-tenth part of their time to be employed in their service; but idleness taxes many of us much more: and sloth, by bringing on diseases, absolutely shortens life. 9. Sloth, like rust, consumes faster than labour wears, while the key used is always bright, as Poor Richard says. But dost thou love life? then do not squander time, for that is the stuff life is made of,' as Poor Richard says. 10. How much more time than is necessary do we spend in sleep! forgetting that 'the sleeping fox catches no poultry, and that there will be sleep enough in the grave,' as Poor Richard says.
11.“If time be of all things the most precious, wasting time must be (as Poor Richard says) the greatest prodigality,' since as he elsewhere tells us 'lost time is never found again ; and what we call time enough, always proves little enough. 12. Let us then up and be doing, and doing to the purpose; so by diligence shall we do more with less perplexity. Sloth makes all things difficult, but industry all easy,' as Poor Richard says: and he that riseth late, must trot all day, and shall scarce overtake his business at night : while laziness travels so slowly that
poverty soon overtakes him; and Poor Richard adds, 'Drive thy business, let not that drivethee;' and
Early to bed and early to rise, Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise.' 13. “So what signifies, wishing and hoping for better times? We may make these times better if we bestir ourselves. Industry need not wish,' as Poor Richard says; and “He that lives upon hope, will die fasting. There are no gains without pains; then help hands, for I have no lands; or, if I have, they are smartly taxed; and he that hath a trade, hath an estate; and he that hath a calling, bath an office of profit and honour,' as Poor Richard says ; but then the trade must be worked at, and the calling well followed, or neither the estate nor the
office will enable us to pay our taxes. 14. If we are industrious we shall never starve; for,
at the workman's house hunger looks in, but dares not enter.' Nor will the bailiff or the constable enter, for, ' Industry pays debts, while despair increaseth them. What though you have found no treasure, nor has any rich relation left you a legacy, 'Diligence is the mother of good luck, and God gives all things to industry.'
Then plough deep, while sluggards sleep,
15. “ Work while it is called to-day, for you know not how much you may be hindered to-mor
One to-day is worth two to-morrows,' as Poor Richard says;, and farther, Never leave that till to-morrow which you can do to-day.' If you were a servant, would you not be ashamed that a good master should catch you idle? Are you then your own master ? Be ashamed to catch yourself idle, when there is so much to be done for yourself, your family, your country, and your king. 16. Handle your tools without mittens; remember, that the cat in gloves catches no mice,' as Poor Richard says. It is true, there is much to be done, and perhaps you are weak-handed; but stick to it steadily, and you will see great effects : for, ‘Constant dropping wears away stones: and by diligence and patience the mouse ate in two the cable; and little strokes fell great oaks.'
17. “Methinks I hear some of you say, 'Must a man afford himself no leisure?' I will tell thee, my friend, what Poor Richard says; Employ thy time well, if thou mean to gain leisure; and, since thou art not sure of a minute, throw not away an hour.' 18. Leisure is time for doing something useful : this leisure the diligent man will obtain, but the lazy man never; for, 'A life of leisure and a life of laziness are two things. Many, without labour, would live by their wits only, but they break for want of stock;' whereas, industry gives comfort, plenty, and respect. Flee from pleasures, and they will follow you. The diligent spinner has a large shift ; and now I have a sheep and a cow, every body bids me good-morrow.'
19.“ But with our industry we must likewise be steady, settled, and careful, and oversee our own affairs with our own eyes, and not trust too much to others : for, as Poor Richard says, . I never saw an oft moved tree, Nor yet an oft moved family, That throve so well as those that settled be,'.
20." And again, 'Three removes are as bad as a fire.' 'Keep thy shop, and thy shop will keep thee. If you would have your business done, go; if not, send.' And again, ' He that by the plough would thrive,
Himself must either hold or drive.' 21.“ The eye of the master will do more work than both his hands ; ' "Want of care does us more damage thân want of knowledge ;' and again, 'Not to oversee workmen, is to leave them your purse open.' 22. Trusting too much to others' care is the