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HUITED STATES OF AMERICA

LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL

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INDUSTRIAL INJURIES TO WOMEN

INTRODUCTION

The development of adequate safety programs in industry and the control of accidents to workers require a firm basis of factual information. Extensive reports on the occurrence of industrial injuries have provided much of this information on which to build such programs. Injury frequency rates in various industries have been determined on the basis of a large body of data concerning the numbers of injuries and the extent to which workers are exposed to hazards. Systematic reporting of injuries has permitted the study of trends and fluctuations in industrial injury experience.

Relatively little statistical information has been available, however, on injuries to women workers, although a few studies have been made in recent years which report separately industrial injuries occurring to women and to men. Two reports on the subject were published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics during 1945. A summary of relevant findings in various studies is presented in Dr. Baetjer's book, Women in Industry, published in 1946. Workmen's Compensation reports in 18 States give some information on reported or compensated claims by sex. Generally such reports give only the number of claims, although in a few States more detailed figures for men and women separately are given by industry, age of worker, type and cause of injury, or other factors.

The present study has been undertaken to discover the extent of injury to women in various industries and to obtain comparison, on as broad a basis as possible, of the experience of men and women. The Bureau of Labor Statistics regularly collects and publishes injury information from a representative group of manufacturing firms, although such data are not secured for men and women separately. At the request of the Women's Bureau and the Industrial Division of the Children's Bureau (now Child Labor and Youth Employment Branch of the Division of Labor Standards) the Bureau of Labor Statistics asked the group of manufacturing firms which periodically give information on injuries to report this information by sex and age (minors and adults) for one quarter of the year 1945.8 Soon afterward information on injuries by sex and age was also asked by the Bureau of Labor Statistics from a group of nonmanufacturing firms for the year 1945 as a whole.

U. S. Department of Labor, Bureau of Labor Statistics. Industrial Injuries to Women Workers, by Max D. Kossoris. Monthly Labor Review 60: 311-315, February 1945. Work Injuries to Women in Shipyards, by Max D. Kossoris. Monthly Labor Review 60 : 551-560, March 1945.

? Baetjer, Anna M. Women in Industry, Their Health and Efficiency. W. B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, Pa., 1946. Chs. 8 and 9.

''In the iron and steel, electrical equipment, and machinery (except electrical) industry groups, some firms gave information for one quarter and some for another. For purposes of this study the records of the two quarters were combined for each of these industries.

Each reporting firm was asked to give information for the period covered on the number and type of injuries to men and to women, and to adults and minors. Manufacturing firms were asked also for separate reports on production and nonproduction workers.

This report presents first a summary of the quarterly reports from the manufacturing firms and second a summary of the annual reports of the nonmanufacturing firms. Injuries to adults and minors are being analyzed by the Child Labor and Youth Employment Branch of the Division of Labor Standards.

The report is based on the replies from 20,000 establishments which were willing to give injury data separately for men and women workers. The numbers of reporting firms are, however, only parts of the total samples of establishments included in Bureau of Labor Statistics reports and may not necessarily be as representative of the country as the total Bureau of Labor Štatistics groups. Differences in frequency rates for all workers in manufacturing industries as reported here and as published in the Bureau of Labor Statistics quarterly reports occur because not all of the firms scheduled responded with data by sex and because some closely related industries have been combined in the following pages.

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