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were made by Wyatt, under the auspices of Bishop Barrington, about the year 1790.
This chapel was erected under the will of Robert, Lord Hungerford, who died in the year 1459, and a chantry was founded in it by Margaret, his wife, daughter, and heiress of William, Lord Botreaux. In his description of this chapel Gough, in his “ Sepulchral Monuments,” says, “ On the wall was a curious, and tolerably well preserved picture of a man, large as life, drest in the habit of the times, a short doublet, cord and bow round his waist, breeches, piked shoes, a high hat and feather, and a dagger in front, a staff in his left hand, his right hand held up in terror and affright at the sight of Death, who was approaching him in a shroud, and had a ridged coffin at his feet.” The above description by Gough is by no means an accurate, or full, one of this ancient, and curious, frescopainting. It is what our ancestors denominated “ A Morality,” and represents a colloquy between “ Dethe and a Galante,” or Beau of those times—in the prime of life-in the pride of strength- and revelling in all the vanities of the day. Look at him, gentle reader! Is not this the man, that Shakspeare drew ?—was it not such an one, whom Hotspur met? when, reeking from the field of battle gained, and faint from wounds of toilsome war, he pestered was by such“ a popinjay,”
Neat, and trimly dress’d,
And twixt his finger and his thumb he held
nor ought we to be amazed, that this made Hotspur
To see him shine so brisk, and smell so sweet,
Gough, in his valuable work, gives a beautiful internal view of this chapel, on the side wall of which this painting may be seen depicted. The chapel and the Halle of John Halle were nearly coeval in their erection ; there is a strong correspondency in the dress of the portraits in each, and it must here be remarked, that I have affixed to the present engraving the appropriate title of “Dethe and the Galante.” To the original painting there was no designation. I trust, that the readers of my humble work will compare these portraits of John Halle and the Galante, as I pass along in my descriptions. An engraving of this painting, by Thomas Langley, was published by J. Lyons, of Salisbury, in the year 1748, and it was from one of those now scarce prints, that I have had the present most accurate lithographic copy taken.
In my elucidation of the dress of John Halle, where, gentle reader, shall I begin ?-at the head ?-or-at the feet ?—but, since the head is the more noble part of man, and, as in travelling, the descent is ever the more easy, I will e'en at once proceed to the discussion of
The Hat, Feather, and Brooch
of the Hero of my History. Man, in the most early times, when arrived at some degree of civilization, sought, as we may well suppose, to protect from the inclemency of the weather, and from external injuries his head, and in the progress of time that covering, which, in the days of the Romans, was generally known by the appellation of Pileus, became in later periods more specifically distinguished by the denomination of cap, bonnet, and hat. The etymology of the word cap is obviously from the Latin Language, caput, the head ; that of bonnet is very undecided, but it is of more modern origin ; it is probable, that it was primarily a Gallic Word, and, being more allied to the cap, it has been said to have been thus called from “ bon à la nuit,” that is, “ good to wear in cold nights." It was probably, at first, the night-cap of our Gallic Neighbours, and distinguished from that of the day by some variance of form, although it has, under altered modes, become, amongst the females of our own land, more especially an article of dress for the day, and more worn in England than on the Continent.
The Latin Word Pileus is generic, and may be taken to signify any covering of the head, whether the more specific cap, bonnet, or hat of later days; it is evidently descended from the Greek Word moc, and may be considered to be derived from its material, usually the skin of some animal with its pile, or hair, on it, or, as
is equally probable, from its covering the hair, or pile, of man. Capillus, the Latin Word for the human hair, is formed by the use of the rhetorical figure, Crasis.* The abbreviated union, with some slight alteration, of the two words "Capitis pilus" (smile not, gentle reader,) doubtless originated the word capillus.
The Latin Word, galerus, generally interpreted in the English Language a hat, is evidently derived from galea, a helmet, and, I think, clearly betokens a covering of the head, formed either in the shape of the helmet, or, as is more probable, from the stoutness of its materials, partaking more of the nature of its defence.
Of the word hat (which alone concerns us in the present instance) I must give a more extended derivation. It seems to be more directly derived from the Saxon Word Hot, or German Hutt, but I must beg to offer the following extract from Minshieu : "A Hatte-Teut. Hutt -Belg. Hoed, ab hoeden—i. e. tegere, custodire, to hide or keepe, vel ab hoft-i. e. caput, ut Gall. Chapeau-Port. Chapeo-Ital. Capello, ex capo, i. e. caput―Hisp. Sombréro à sombra, i. e. umbra-Lat. Galérus à similitudine galeæ. Pileus, à Gr. #íλoç.”
Whitaker, in his " History of Manchester," is decidedly of opinion, that the Romans did not succeed in the introduction of their pileus, or cap, amongst the Britons, to the exclusion of the also used covering of the head, subsequently known by the appellation of the hat, and he adduces many specimens of ancient British * κεφᾶννυμι, misceo.
Coins to prove by the figures on them, that both the cap and the hat were then in use. I incline strongly to his opinion, which, if correct, proves that, though the Saxons gave the appellative of hat to that article of dress, it was itself not of their introduction.*
The derivation of the word hat from the Saxon Word Hæt proves, that our Saxon Forefathers did use this article of dress. “ We have (says Strutt, in his “ History of Dress, &c.") already spoken of the cap, or rather perhaps hat of the Saxons, a word, which occasionally occurs in their writings. The Hat was, I doubt not, made of various materials, and by no means seems to be a part of dress uni- . versally adopted; from its general appearance I have supposed it to have been made with the shaggy part turned outwards, and probably it often might be so, for they had also felt, or woollen hats at this period, which their own records testify.” It is well known, that the fellen Hæt is spoken of by Saxon Writers, although we are not cognizant of their precise ideas, as to the form of this article of dress.
It is difficult, perhaps impossible, to define the particular æras of the use, or the form, of the cap, bonnet, or hat, as in oontra-distinction to each other. The cap, perhaps, glided imperceptibly into the hat, and, for want of due demarkation, the same covering, as is probable, has been indiscriminately known by either appellation. The word hat was, mayhap, more usually applied to the covering of the head,
* History of Manchester, Vol. 1, p. 304.