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gun. But if the elephant, which is often the case, rushes to either side, in order to escape the attack, the sportsman is almost lost. The elephant is then of no use, and if there be a tree in its path, the rider will be swept off its back, and perhaps trampled to death by the terrified animal mistaking him for the pursuing panther. Then there is no longer any sport, for one has no more the least control over one's fate.
This was the reason why we naturally listened to the advice of our experienced friends, and waited outside whilst Ali Beg cautiously approaches the hiding-place of our terrible foe. It is a moment of breathless suspense. Every second we expect that the panther will rush out and attack us, when suddenly the report of a gun is heard, and Ali Beg's unerring bullet has disabled the panther at the very moment it is about springing upon him. Oscar and I gave the tenacious beast its coup de grâce.
The next day there was no hunt, as the ground round the panther kill’ reported in the morning was too unfavourable to permit of any hunting. We, therefore, had some target practice in the morning, and it was arranged that later on we should have some beats through the jungle for the shooting of small game, such as jungle-sheep, peacocks, partridges, hares, &c. But this was not to be, as we soon got something else to think of; for about two o'clock a shout arose that the cholera had broken out in the camp!
A man had just died, and lay under a tree close to the tents. It was decided at once to break up the camp and return to Hyderabad without delay. Quite a panic reigned within it, and when I shortly afterwards looked out of my tent I beheld Salar Yung with his retinue depart in hot haste.
Three-quarters of an hour later we too were in the saddle, galloping in the direction of the city, with a little more calmness than our Hindoo host, but nevertheless fast enough to cover, under a scorching sun and suffocating dust, the thirty miles of jungle in three hours, when we reached the spot where the carriages were awaiting us.
At eight o'clock we were again seated at the hospitable dinnertable of the English Resident at Hyderabad.
ENGLISH AND FOREIGN SPAS.
An English minister at a foreign court once remarked to a young English physician who had been introduced to him: “There are two things you English doctors do not understand: you do not understand waters, and you do not understand wines!'
This reproach was perhaps not altogether unmerited. The habit of resorting to mineral springs for the relief of chronic ailments is certainly not so widely diffused in this country as it is in Germany and France; while the ability to judge of wines presumes a familiarity with the different varieties, and in these days of temperance, and total abstinence, such a familiarity is not likely to be widely spread, nor need we wish that it should be.
But the study and understanding of mineral waters have made considerable progress of late years amongst English physicians, and a visit to one or more of the principal foreign spas often forms an indispensable part of their summer holiday ; while the diffusion of what may be called bath literature' has attained proportions which are truly embarrassing. A feeling has, however, arisen of late years, and has been freely expressed, that in recommending English invalids to resort to one or other of the various Continental spas, English physicians have been unduly and unjustly neglecting the precious resources in the way of healing springs' which their own country affords.
It may, therefore, be both interesting and useful, especially at this season of the year, to make a brief inquiry into the respective merits of English and foreign spas, and to compare and examine their claims to be regarded as efficient remedial agents.
In the first place, I would desire it to be understood that I by no means admit the justice of the accusation, that we have greatly neglected or unjustly despised our own resources.
These are, it must be honestly admitted, extremely limited compared with those of such countries as Germany and France. The universal presence on our dinner tables of such waters as St. Galmier, Giesshubler, and Apollinaris is a sufficient acknowledgment of our own poverty in mineral springs. No amount of patriotic advocacy can alter the fact, that we have no sparkling gaseous chalybeate springs like those of Schwalbach, Spa, and St. Moritz; no hot sulphur springs like those
of Aix, Luchon, or Eaux Bonnes; no acidulated alkaline springs like those of Vichy or Vals; no gaseous salt waters like those of Homburg and Kissingen; no hot alkaline aperient springs like those of Carlsbad; and even the common, non-gaseous, aperient, so-called bitter 'waters we are obliged to import from abroad, as is witnessed by the large consumption in this country of Friedrichshall, Hunyadi, Pullna, and Æsculap waters.
Of natural hot springs which abound in certain parts of Europe we have but two, Bath and Buxton, and the springs at the latter place have a temperature of only 82° F.
All the springs at Harrogate, which are probably the most important in this country, are cold. If to these three--Bath, Buxton, and Harrogate, the only considerable spas we possess--we add Droitwich, Woodhall Spa, Cheltenham, Leamington, Tunbridge Wells, Llandrindod, Matlock, Moffat, Strathpeffer, and Dinsdale, we have very nearly exhausted our available spas.
In some of these the supply of water is so insignificant in quantity as to render a large bathing establishment impossible; while in others, as in Tunbridge Wells for example, the quality of the water is so decidedly inferior to that of analogous foreign springs as to render it practically useless. At Harrogate one of the milder chalybeate springs is artificially impregnated with carbonic acid gas in order to make it approach in quality some of the Continental iron springs; but this is then no longer a natural water, though it may possibly be found, in some instances, to answer the same purpose.
Then, again, the great number and variety of the Continental spas and the immense richness of their supply of water have led to a specialisation of many of them, which undoubtedly increases their popularity and renders selection easy.
I will only name from among many other instances the following: the treatment of biliary obstructions and the plethoric forms of gout at Carlsbad; of atonic gout at Royat; the treatment of calculous disorders at Vichy and Contrexéville; the treatment of chronic articular rheumatism and gout at Aix-les-Bains; the treatment of diabetes at Neuenahr and Carlsbad ; the treatment of obesity at Marienbad ; the treatment of gouty and catarrhal dyspepsia at Homburg and Kissingen; the treatment of anæmia at Schwalbach and St. Moritz; the treatment of asthma at Mont Dore; the treatment of throat affections at Cauterets and Eaux Bonnes; of scrofulous glandular affections at Kreuznach ; of the great variety of chronic skin affections at Aixla-Chapelle, Cannstadt, La Bourboule, and Uriage.
Further, a glance at the classification of the various mineral waters into groups according to their composition will also serve to show the very
of choice afforded us by our own spas. 1. In the first place there are the simple thermal waters—the simple hot springs which are so numerous on the Continent. They
are distinguished by their high temperature, ranging from 80° to 150° Fahrenheit, or even higher; by the very small amount of mineral substances contained in them-in some instances, as at Pfaeffers, which may be taken as a type of this class, there are but 2 grains of solid constituents in 7,680 grains of water; and by their softness.
These are often termed 'indifferent springs' on account of the absence in them of any special mineral substances. The Germans also call them · Wild-bäder' because they often rise in wild, romantic, wooded districts, and one of the most renowned spas of this class is that known as Wildbad, situated in the Würtemberg portion of the Black Forest. Gastein, Teplitz, Schlangenbad, and Plombières are also examples of this class, as are also Bath and Buxton in our own country. The waters of this class are chiefly used as baths, and when administered internally they are simply given with a view of exercising the same purifying solvent influence that might be obtained from drinking pure hot water-a subject I propose to return to by-and-by.
As baths they are considered to produce their curative effects, first, by cleansing and softening the skin and so promoting perspiration ; secondly (according to the temperature at which they are employed), by equalising or diminishing the loss of heat from the body, or preventing it altogether, or even giving heat to it; thirdly, by promoting the circulation in the peripheral vessels and so improving the nutrition and tone of the skin ; fourthly, by gently stimulating the organic functions and so promoting tissue change ; fifthly, by allaying muscular and nervous irritability through the exercise of a soothing influence on the peripheral nerves; and lastly, by promoting the absorption of inflammatory, rheumatic, and gouty exudations.
It is usual to employ these waters as local douches to affected parts, and to associate with them the curative effects of frictions and massage. All these processes have long been introduced into practice at Bath and also at Buxton, and the good effects derivable from this class of waters, apart from considerations of climate, can be obtained at either of those British spas.
The maladies in which these indifferent' thermal springs have been found to be of the greatest efficacy are cases of chronic rheumatism, articular and muscular; chronic gouty inflammation of joints; sciatica, and other forms of neuralgia ; hysterical and hyperæsthetic states of the nervous system; old painful wounds and cicatrices; and cases of loss of muscular power (paralysis) when not dependent on disease of the nervous centres.
This mode of treatment is essentially soothing and gentle, and can usually be tolerated by the most sensitive and delicate constitutions. It has been found by experience advantageous to combine with this mode of treatment the tonic influence of forest air or a sub
Alpine climate, such as that of Wildbad, Gastein, or Bagnères de Bigorre in the case of highly nervous and hyperæsthetic sufferers ; and, as a rule, the more bracing the climate the higher the temperature at which the baths can be borne with impunity.
2. Some of the most popular springs fall under the head of common salt waters.' Common salt (chloride of sodium) is one of the ingredients of most frequent occurrence in mineral springs, but it is only when it occurs in a spring in altogether preponderating proportions that it belongs to this class. The strength of these common salt springs varies greatly; that at Reichenhall, which is one of the strongest, contains twenty-four per cent. of chloride of sodium, that at Wiesbaden only six per cent. In some spas of this class it is customary to fortify the weaker natural springs by the addition of concentrated mutter lye (bittern), as at Kreuznach ; while at others the stronger springs, too strong and exciting for most purposes, are diluted with pure water, as at Reichenhall,
Some of these springs contain also a considerable amount of free carbonic acid, and this greatly increases their stimulating effect on the skin when used as baths (Nauheim and Rehme), and modifies the action of the chloride of sodium when taken internally (Homburg, Kissingen). The carbonic acid acts as a sedative on the nerves of the stomach, promotes secretion and absorption, and augments peristaltic action. It distinctly increases the activity of the water, besides making it more palatable.
Used as baths, these springs stimulate the peripheral vessels and nerves, and promote capillary circulation. They improve the tone and nutrition of the skin, and indirectly stimulate tissue change, that pulling down and building up, upon the due regulation and activity of which the maintenance and perfection of healthy life depend.
Internally these waters act as stimulants and indirectly as tonics to the organs of digestion and assimilation. They increase the secretions of the alimentary canal and promote its muscular activity, and improve the abdominal and the general circulation. By their stimulating action on the circulation and on the change of tissue they lead to the absorption and removal of morbid deposits.
It is necessary, however, to bear in mind that in persons with highly sensitive mucous membranes they may cause irritation and discomfort, especially if given in too large doses. It is important also to remember that the warmer they are drunk the more rapidly they are absorbed, so that their local effect is diminished and their constitutional effect increased.
The cases in which these common salt waters are found beneficial are very various; amongst others they are employed as baths with advantage in cases of hypersensitiveness of the skin (weakness of skin '), giving rise to a tendency to catch cold,' and therefore to