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- the General Secretariat, which is the central and permanent organ, headquartered in Washington, DC.

The Organization has six specialized organizations that handle technical matters of common interest to the American States. It also holds specialized conferences on specific technical matters. For further information, contact the Director, Department of Public Information, Organization of American States, Seventeenth Street and Constitution Avenue NW., Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202-458-3760. Fax, 202-458-6421.

United Nations
United Nations, New York, NY 10017.
Phone, 212-963-1234
Secretary-General: Boutros Boutros-Ghali

constituted governments and will include among the essential purposes of the Organization the eradication of extreme poverty, which constitutes an obstacle to the full democratic development of the peoples of the hemisphere. A fourth protocol of amendment, the Protocol of Managua 1993 which entered into force on January 29, 1996, established the Inter-American Council for Integral Development (CIDI), which replaces the Inter-American Councils for Economic and Social Affairs and Education, Science and Culture.

The Organization's member states are Argentina, Antigua and Barbuda, Commonwealth of the Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Commonwealth of Dominica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, St. Kitts and Nevis, St. Lucia, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, the United States of America, Uruguay, and Venezuela. The present Government of Cuba is excluded from participation by a decision of the Eighth Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs in 1962. Thirty-seven non-American countries, as well as the Holy See and the European Union, are permanent observers.

The principal organs of the OAS are:

-the General Assembly, which is normally composed of the foreign ministers of the member states and meets at least once a year to decide the general action and policy of the Organization;

--the Meeting of Consultation of Ministers of Foreign Affairs, which meets on call to consider urgent matters of common interest or threats to the

peace and security of the hemisphere;

—the Permanent Council, which meets twice a month at OAS headquarters;

-the Inter-American Council for Integral Development;

-the Inter-American Juridical Committee;

-the Inter-American Commission on Human Rights; and

United Nations Office at Geneva: Palais des
Nations, 1211 Geneva 10, Switzerland
Director-General: Antoine Blanca
United Nations Office at Vienna: Vienna
International Centre, P.O. Box 500, A-1400,
Vienna, Austria
Director-General: Giorgio Giacomelli
Washington, DC, Office: U.N. Information
Centre, Suite 400, 1775 K Street NW.,
Washington, DC 20006. Phone, 202–331-
8670. Fax, 202-331-9191
Director: Joe Sills

The United Nations is an international organization that was set up in accordance with the Charter' drafted by governments represented at the Conference on International Organization meeting at San Francisco. The Charter was signed on June 26, 1945, and came into force on October 24, 1945, when the required number of ratifications and accessions had been made by the signatories. Amendments increasing membership of the Security Council and the Economic and Social

Charter of the United Nations, together with the Statute of the International Court of Justice (Department of State Publication No. 2353, International Organization and Conference Series III, 21), June 26, 1945. Available for sale from the Superintendent of Documents, Government Printing Office, Washington, DC 20402. Phone, 202-5121800.

Council came into effect on August 31, sessions. It normally meets in regular 1965.

annual session in September. The United Nations now consists of Security Council The Security Council 185 member states, of which 51 are consists of 15 members, of which 5—the founding members.

People's Republic of China, France, The purposes of the United Nations Russia, the United Kingdom, and the set out in the Charter are: to maintain

United States of America—are international peace and security; to permanent members and are elected develop friendly relations among

each year. The 10 nonpermanent nations; to achieve international

members are elected for 2-year terms by cooperation in solving international

the General Assembly. The primary problems of an economic, social,

responsibility of the Security Council is cultural, or humanitarian character and

to act on behalf of the members of the in promoting respect for human rights;

United Nations in maintenance of and to be a center for harmonizing the international peace and security. actions of nations in the attainment of

Measures that may be employed by the these common ends.

Security Council are outlined in the
The principal organs of the United Charter.
Nations are:

The Security Council, together with General Assembly All states that are the General Assembly, also elects the members of the United Nations are judges of the International Court of members of the General Assembly. Its

Justice and makes a recommendation to functions are to consider and discuss any

the General Assembly on the matter within the scope of the Charter of appointment of the Secretary General of the United Nations and to make

the organization. recommendations to the members of the The Security Council first met in United Nations and other organs. It

London on January 17, 1946, and is so approves the budget of the organization, organized as to be able to function the expenses of which are borne by the continuously. members as apportioned by the General Economic and Social Council This Assembly.

organ is responsible, under the authority The General Assembly may call the of the General Assembly, for the attention of the Security Council to economic and social programs of the situations likely to endanger international United Nations. Its functions include peace and security, may initiate studies, making or initiating studies, reports, and and may receive and consider reports recommendations on international from other organs of the United Nations. economic, social, cultural, educational, Under the "Uniting for Peace"

health, and related matters; promoting resolution adopted by the General respect for and observance of human Assembly in November 1950, if the rights and fundamental freedoms for all; Security Council fails to act on an calling international conferences and apparent threat to or breach of the peace preparing draft conventions for or act of aggression because of lack of submission to the General Assembly on unanimity of its five permanent

matters within its competence; members, the Assembly itself may take negotiating agreements with the up the matter within 24 hours—in specialized agencies and defining their emergency special session—and

relationship with the United Nations; recommend collective measures,

coordinating the activities of the including, in case of a breach of the specialized agencies; and consulting peace or act of aggression, use of armed with nongovernmental organizations force when necessary to maintain or concerned with matters within its restore international peace and security. competence. The Council consists of 54

The General Assembly has held to members of the United Nations elected date 50 regular sessions, 18 special by the General Assembly for 3-year sessions, and 11 emergency special terms; 18 are elected each year.

The Council usually holds two regular sessions a year. It has also held a number of special sessions. Trusteeship Council The Trusteeship Council was initially established to consist of any member states that administered trust territories, permanent members of the Security Council that did not administer trust territories, and enough other nonadministering countries elected by the General Assembly for 3year terms to ensure that membership would be equally divided between administering and nonadministering members. Under authority of the General Assembly, the Council considered reports from members administering trust territories, examined petitions from trust territory inhabitants, and provided for periodic inspection visits to trust territories.

With the independence of Palau, the last remaining U.N. trust territory, the Trusteeship Council formally suspended operations after nearly half a century. The council will henceforth meet only on an extraordinary basis, as the need may arise. International Court of Justice The International Court of Justice is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. It has its seat at The Hague, The Netherlands. All members of the United Nations are ipso facto parties to the

Statute of the Court. Nonmembers of the United Nations may become parties to the Statute of the Court on conditions prescribed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council.

The jurisdiction of the Court comprises all cases that the parties refer to it and all matters specially provided for in the Charter of the United Nations or in treaties and conventions in force.

The Court consists of 15 judges known as "members' of the Court. They are elected for 9-year terms by the General Assembly and the Security Council, voting independently, and may be reelected. Secretariat The Secretariat consists of a Secretary-General and "such staff as the Organization may require." The Secretary-General, who is appointed by the General Assembly on the recommendation of the Security Council, is the chief administrative officer of the United Nations. He acts in that capacity for the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, and the Trusteeship Council. Under the Charter, the Secretary-General "may bring to the attention of the Security Council any matter that in his opinion may threaten the maintenance of international peace and security.”

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APPENDIX A: Commonly Used Abbreviations and


ABMC American Battle

Monuments Commission ACDA United States Arms

Control and

Disarmament Agency
ACF Administration for

Children and Families
ACYF Administration on

Children, Youth, and

ADA Americans with

Disabilities Act of 1990
ADB Asian Development Bank
ADD Administration on


AFAA Air Force Audit Agency
AFBCMR Air Force Review Board

for Correction of Military

AFCARA Air Force Civilian

Appellate Review

AFDB African Development

AFDC Aid to Families with

Dependent Children
AFDF African Development

AFIS American Forces

Information Service
AFPEO Air Force Program

Executive Office
AFRTS Armed Forces Radio and

Television Service
AFSC Armed Forces Staff

AGRICOLA Agricultural Online

AIDS Acquired Immune

Deficiency Syndrome

AmeriCorps AmeriCorps*National
NCCC Civilian Community

AMS Agricultural Marketing

Amtrak National Railroad

Passenger Corporation
ANA Administration for Native

AOA Administration on Aging
APHIS Animal and Plant Health

Inspection Service
ARC Appalachian Regional

ARS Agricultural Research

ATSDR Agency for Toxic

Substances and Disease

BEA Bureau of Economic

BHRD Bureau of Health

Resources Development
BIA Bureau of Indian Affairs
BJA Bureau of Justice

BJS Bureau of Justice

BLM Bureau of Land

BLS Bureau of Labor Statistics
BPA Bonneville Power

BSC's Business Service Centers
BTS Bureau of Transportation

BVA Board of Veterans'

C4 Command, Control,

Communication, and
Computer Systems

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