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that they serve. The Office publishes quarterly, in cooperation with the Bureau of Prisons of the Department of Justice, a magazine entitled Federal Probation, which is a journal "of correctional philosophy and practice."
The Director also has responsibility with respect to the establishment of pretrial services in the district courts under the Pretrial Services Act of 1982 (18 U.S.C. 3152). These offices report to their respective courts information concerning pretrial release of persons charged with Federal offenses and supervise such persons who are released to their custody. Bankruptcy The Bankruptcy Amendments and Federal Judgeship Act of 1984 (28 U.S.C. 151) provided that the bankruptcy judges for each judicial district shall constitute a unit of the district court to be known as the bankruptcy court. Bankruptcy judges are appointed by the courts of appeals in such numbers as authorized by Congress and serve for a term of 14 years as judicial officers of the district courts.
This act placed jurisdiction in the district courts over all cases under title 11, United States Code, and all proceedings arising in or related to cases under that title (28 U.S.C. 1334). The district court may provide for such cases and proceedings to be referred to its bankruptcy judges (as authorized by 28 U.S.C. 157).
The Director of the Administrative Office recommends to the Judicial Conference the official duty stations and places of holding court of bankruptcy judges, surveys the need for additional bankruptcy judgeships to be recommended to Congress, and determines the staff needs of bankruptcy judges and the clerks of the bankruptcy courts. Federal Magistrate Judges Under the Federal Magistrates Act, as amended (28 U.S.C. 631), the Director of the Administrative Office, under the supervision and direction of the Judicial Conference, exercises general supervision over administrative matters in offices of United States magistrate judges, compiles and evaluates statistical data relating to such offices, and submits
reports thereon to the Conference. The Director reports annually to Congress on the business that has come before United States magistrate judges and also prepares legal and administrative manuals for the use of the magistrate judges. The act provides for surveys to be conducted by the Administrative Office of the conditions in the judicial districts in order to make recommendations as to the number, location, and salaries of magistrate judges, which are determined by the Conference subject to the availability of appropriated funds. Federal Defenders The Criminal Justice Act (18 U.S.C. 3006A) establishes the procedure for the appointment of counsel in Federal criminal cases for individuals who are unable to afford adequate representation under plans adopted by each district court. The act also permits the establishment of Federal public defender or Federal community defender organizations by the district courts in districts where at least 200 persons annually require the appointment of counsel. Two adjacent districts may be combined to reach this total.
Each defender organization submits to the Director of the Administrative Office an annual report of its activities along with a proposed budget or, in the case of community defender organizations, a proposed grant for the coming year. The Director is responsible for the submission of the proposed budgets and grants to the Judicial Conference for approval. The Director also makes payments to the defender organizations out of appropriations in accordance with the approved budgets and grants, as well as compensating private counsel appointed to defend criminal cases in the United States courts.
Sources of Information Information may
be obtained from the following offices:
Bankruptcy Judges Division. Phone, 202-273-
Defender Services Division. Phone, 202-273-
1270. Judicial Conference Executive Secretariat. Phone, 202-273-1140. Magistrate Judges Division. Phone, 202-2731830. Statistics Division. Phone, 202-273-2240.
For further information, contact one of the offices listed above, Administrative Office of the United States Courts, Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building. One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20544.
FEDERAL JUDICIAL CENTER
RYA W. ZOBEL
The Federal Judicial Center is the judicial branch's agency for planning and policy research and continuing education.
The Federal Judicial Center was created by act of December 20, 1967 (28 U.S.C. 620), to further the development and adoption of improved judicial administration in the courts of the United States.
The Center's basic policies and activities are determined by its Board, which is composed of the Chief Justice of the United States, who is permanent Chairman of the Board by statute, and two judges of the U.S. courts of appeals, three judges of the U.S. district courts, and one bankruptcy judge, all of whom are elected for 4-year terms by the Judicial Conference of the United States. The Director of the Administrative Office of the United States Courts is also a permanent member of the Board.
Pursuant to statute the Center:
-develops and administers orientation and continuing education programs for Federal judges, Federal defenders, and nonjudicial court personnel, including probation officers, pretrial services officers, and clerks' office employees;
- conducts empirical and exploratory research and evaluation on Federal judicial processes, court management, and sentencing and its consequences, usually for the committees of the Judicial Conference or the courts themselves;
-produces research reports, training manuals, video programs, and periodicals about the Federal courts;
-provides guidance and advice and maintains data and records to assist those interested in documenting and conserving the history of the Federal courts; and
-cooperates and assists other agencies and organizations in providing advice to improve the administration of justice in the courts of foreign countries.
202-273-4021. Planning and Technology Division. Phone, 202273-4200. Fax, 202-273-4024 Judicial Education Division. Phone, 202-2734052. Fax, 202-273-4023. Court Education Division. Phone, 202-273-4110. Fax, 202-273-4020. Publications and Media Division. Phone, 202273-4140. Fax, 202-273-4025. Federal Judicial History Office. Phone, 202-2734180. Fax, 202-273-4025. Interjudicial Affairs Office. Phone, 202-273-4161.
For further information, contact the Federal Judicial Center, Thurgood Marshall Federal Judiciary Building, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20002-8003. For a recorded message and office directory, dial 202-273-4000 on a touch-tone phone.
UNITED STATES SENTENCING COMMISSION
Commissioners (ex officio)
RICHARD P. CONABOY
MICHAEL GOLDSMITH, DEANELL
The United States Sentencing Commission develops sentencing policies and practices for the Federal criminal justice system.
The United States Sentencing Commission was established as an independent commission in the judicial branch of the Federal Government by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (28
U.S.C. 991 et seq. and 18 U.S.C. 3551 et seq.). The Commission establishes sentencing policies and practices for the Federal courts, including guidelines prescribing the appropriate form and