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incapacitation, and rehabilitation; provide fairness in meeting the purposes of sentencing; avoid unwarranted disparity; and reflect advancement in the knowledge of human behavior as it relates to the criminal justice process.

In addition, the Commission provides training, conducts research on sentencing-related issues, and serves as an information resource for Congress, criminal justice practitioners, and the public.

severity of punishment for offenders convicted of Federal crimes.

The Commission is composed of seven voting members appointed by the President with the advice and consent of the Senate for 6-year terms, and two nonvoting members. One of the voting members is appointed Chairman.

The Commission evaluates the effects of the sentencing guidelines on the criminal justice system, advises Congress regarding the modification or enactment of statutes relating to criminal law and sentencing matters, establishes a research and development program on sentencing issues, and performs other related duties.

In executing its duties, the Commission promulgates and distributes to Federal courts and to the U.S. Probation System guidelines to be used in determining sentences to be imposed in criminal cases, general policy statements regarding the application of guidelines, and policy statements on the appropriate use of probation and supervised release revocation provisions. These sentencing guidelines and policy statements are designed to further the purposes of just punishment, deterrence,

Sources of Information Judges and Probation Officers Technical Assistance Service Phone, 202-2734545 (hotline). Prosecuting and Defense Attorneys Phone, 202-273-4527 (hotline). Public Information Information concerning the Commission's activities is available from the Office of Communications. Phone, 202–273– 4590.

Commission information and materials may also be obtained electronically. Electronic bulletin board by modem, 202–273_4709. Internet, http:// www.ussc.gov/.

for further information, contact the Office of Communications, United States Sentencing Commission, Suite 2-500, South Lobby, One Columbus Circle NE., Washington, DC 20002–8002. Phone, 202-273-4590.

Executive Branch





Article II, section 1, of the Constitution provides that "[t]he executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, ... together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term ...." In addition to the powers set forth in the Constitution, the statutes have conferred upon the President specific authority and responsibility covering a wide range of matters (United States Code Index).

The President is the administrative head of the executive branch of the Government, which includes numerous gencies, both temporary and permanent, as well as the 14 executive departments.


The Cabinet, a creation of custom and tradition dating back to George Washington's administration, functions at the pleasure of the President. Its purpose is to advise the President upon any subject, relating to the duties of the respective offices, on which he requests information (pursuant to Article II, section 2, of the Constitution).

The Cabinet is composed of the heads of the 14 executive departments—the Secretaries of Agriculture, Commerce, Defense, Education, Energy, Health and Human Services, Housing and Urban Development, Interior, Labor, State, Transportation, Treasury, and Veterars Affairs, and the Attorney General. Additionally, in the Clinton administration, Cabinet-level rank has been accorded to: the Chief of Staff to the President; the Director of Central Intelligence; the Chairman, Council of Economic Advisers; the Counselor to the President; the Administrator, Environmental Protection Agency; the Director, Federal Emergency Management Agency; the Director, Office of Management and Budget; the Director, Office of National Drug Control Policy; the Administrator, Small Business Administration; the U.S. Representative to the United Nations; and the U.S. Trade Representative. The Vice President also participates in Cabinet meetings, and from time to time, other individuals are invited to participate in discussions of particular subjects. A Secretary to the Cabinet is designated to provide for the orderly handling and followup of matters brought before the Cabinet.

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