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courages that activity of mind and body, which is natural to man in the extension of trade and commerce, and in the works of art, literature, and science. Kett says: "Commerce will be found to have had no small influence in calming the minds of the nations of the earth, into a state of repose and complacency. The sudden revolutions, heroic manners, and extraordinary events of ancient times, resulted from the ferocity of temper, and inequality of rank, which commerce tends to annihilate. A regular intercourse subsisting between countries, contributes to cure the mind of many absurd and hurtful prejudices.
"Trade, carried on between persons of different sects and religions, has a tendency to lessen the opposition of opinion, which was formerly a cause of hatred and hostility. It promotes benevolence of disposition, in as much as it extends the connection and intercourse of society, and increases the love of peace and order, without which its operations cannot be carried on. The merchant engaged in honourable traffic, is the friend of mankind, and is occupied in a constant exercise of good offices, for the benefit of his necessitous fellow creatures. From the intercourse of foreign trade results an effect, peculiarly advantageous to the less polished and
civilized nations: they become acquainted with useful arts and improvements, are taught the value of science, and behold the blessings of Christianity.
"Thus, by degrees, the great disparity between man and man is removed, and useful knowledge finds its level. Commerce, by a reciprocal intercourse of good offices, employs and unites the families of the earth, from the frozen regions of Russia, to the burning sands of Africa; from the Isle of Britain, to the vast and populous dominions of China."
But let us contemplate the delightful change which the internal state of England exhibits in our times, when contrasted with the disgusting scenes of the feudal system. Then, every sentiment which ennobles the mind, was supplanted by the foulest malignities, generating intestine broils, discord and rapine. Now, we contemplate in the aspect of Nobility, a philanthropy and benignity, diffusing real blessings in the patronage of every Institution which has for its object the relief of suffering humanity. Now, also, virtue hath triumphed over avarice and cruelty, in the abolition, both at home and abroad, of that dreadful complication of iniquity the slave trade; and, "the chain which bound Africa to the ground, and prevented the success
of every effort to raise her up, is broken by a great and splendid exertion of British justice." Now, we see a prince of our own country, at the head of an institution, supported by persons of the first distinction in the land, for the purpose of introducing the blessings of civilized society, among a people sunk in ignorance and barbarism, occupying no less than a quarter of the habitable globe: thus interposing benevolence to repair the ruin and degradation which we have contributed to bring upon nations.
Here is a philanthropy actuating the first orders of society, not of an ephemeral, visionary kind; but the extension of it abroad, has been dictated by sound experience of the salutary effects it has produced at home.
What real dignity has been reflected on rank and title, by the patronage of institutions for exploding the vulgar traditions, and correcting the errors of ancient husbandry! for the introduction of a rational system of the art founded on clear and intelligible principles; and by those means accelerating improvements in the natural resources of the country, whether they are derived from agriculture, or from cattle!
Under the favouring auspices of the present reign, arts and sciences have been cultivated with an ardour and success, which have greatly
extended the sphere of human knowledge and usefulness. This has been exemplified in a variety of instances. Fifty years ago, the Potteries of England were too diminutive to engage a share of public attention; but the variety which has since been introduced in earthen wares, and the extent to which the manufacturing of them has been carried, render them an object of national consequence, if only for the occupation and subsistence of a great number of families, and of young persons of both sexes. But the competition excited in this branch of trade, now produces specimens of art, which for delicacy of taste and exquisiteness of workmanship, attract the attention of Virtuosi, and have long superseded the importation of the finest porcelain of China.
Mechanical discoveries have increased the power of that grand agent, the Steam Engine, to an extent which has encouraged the Miner to pursue to a much greater depth in the earth, the valuable productions of our Isle, tin and copper. Ingenuity in the construction of artificial apparatus, has produced the astonishing machinery, by which thousands of movements are applied, at the same time, to the formation of the delicately fine and curious threads of cotton. . And, however great the discouragement, which
the dismantling of British forests has presented to the fabrication of iron in this country, advancement in chimical knowledge has provided other means, than the use of charcoal, for the supply of that most useful of all metals, in quantities sufficient for the whole kingdom and its dependancies; whilst the extensions and junctions of navigable canals, have facilited the conveyance of heavy commodities to most parts of the Island.
But great as may have been the satisfaction with which Britains have viewed the prosperity of their commerce, it is too much to expect that their manufactures should long maintain the same ascendancy in foreign markets, which they formerly had, After the proof which Great Britain has given of her ability, to support a warfare protracted to the unparalleled extent of twenty years, and providing in a great degree the means for other nations to unite in the contest, the Potentates of Europe must be more, than ever convinced, of the astonishing resources to be derived from the successful prosecution of arts and commerce.
The observation cannot fail to excite in many neighbouring states and kingdoms, an increased attention to mechanical, manufacturing, and mercantile interests. In whatever