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COMMITTEE ON THE JUDICIARY

JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi, Chairman JOHN L. MCCLELLAN, Arkansas

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut

HUGH SCOTT, Pennsylvania PHILIP A. HART, Michigan

STROM THURMOND, South Carolina EDWARD M. KENNEDY, Massachusetts MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky BIRCH BAYH, Indiana

CHARLES MCC. MATHIAS, JR., Maryland QUENTIN N. BURDICK, North Dakota ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan JOSEPH D TYDINGS, Maryland ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia

SUBCOMMITTEE ON CONSTITUTIONAL AMENDMENTS

BIRCH BAYH, Indiana, Chairman JAMES O. EASTLAND, Mississippi

ROMAN L. HRUSKA, Nebraska SAM J. ERVIN, JR., North Carolina

HIRAM L. FONG, Hawaii THOMAS J. DODD, Connecticut

STROM THURMOND, South Carolina JOSEPH D. TYDINGS, Maryland

MARLOW W. COOK, Kentucky ROBERT C. BYRD, West Virginia

ROBERT P. GRIFFIN, Michigan

CONTENTS

WITNESSES BY DATE

FEBRUARY 16, 1970

Page

3 15

21 36

Randolph, Hon. Jennings, U.S. Senator from the State of West Virginia -
Sorensen, Mr. Theodore, former Special Counsel to President Kennedy --
Menninger, Dr. W. Walter, member National Commission on the Causes

and Prevention of Violence..
Harakawa, Dr. S. I., president, San Francisco State College-
MacGowan, Mr. Ian, executive director of the Youth Franchise Coali-

tion...
Wideman, Mr. Clark, Midwest consultant for Youth Franchise Coalition..
Blumenauer, Mr. Earl, director of Oregon Referendum to Lower Voting

Age...
Discuillo, Mr. Alan, research consultant, Youth Franchise Coalition..

43

48

57

58

73 78 92

FEBRUARY 17, 1970
Cowger, Hon. William, U.S. Representative from the State of Kentucky -
Kleindienst, Deputy Attorney General Richard, Justice Department...
Lumley, Mr. John, National Education Association...
Gonzales, Mr. Charles, president of Student National Education Asso-

ciation.
Clark, Ramsey, former U.S. Attorney General
Springer, Private Gerald
Lowenstein, Hon. Allard, U.S. Representative from the State of New York.
Bogardo, Mr. Stephen, National Businessmen's Council.
Megel, Mr. Carl, American Federation of Teachers--

95 102 111 114 120 124

131

MARCH 9, 1970
Goldwater, Hon. Barry, U.S. Senator from the State of Arizona -
Brown, James Jr., national youth director, National Association for the

Advancement of Colored People.
Queen, Miss Philomena, youth regional chairman, Middle Atlantic region of

the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People --
Kennedy, Hon. Edward M., U.S. Senator from the State of Massachu-

150

152

serts.

155

203

222

233 249 273

MARCH 10, 1970
Railsback, Hon. Tom, U.S. Representative from the State of Illinois ----
Mead, Dr. Margaret, professor of anthropology, Columbia University,

New York..
Rehnquist, Assistant Attorney General, Justice Department,
Pollak, Dean Louis, Yale Law School, New Haven, Conn.--
Speiser, Mr. Lawrence, American Civil Liberties Union, Washington, D.C..

WITNESSES ALPHABETICALLY
American Civil Liberties Union..
American Federation of Teachers..
Blumenauer, Mr. Earl, director of Oregon Referendum to Lower Voting

Age.
Bogardo, Mr. Stephen L., member of board of directors, National Business-

Info's Council
Brown, Mr. James Brown Jr., national youth director, National Associa-
tion for the Advancement of Colored People--

273 124

57

120

150 31

Page Clark, Mr. Ramsey, former Attorney General of the United States.--- 102 Cowger, Hon. William O., U.S. Representative from the State of Kentucky- 73 Discuillo, Alan M., research consultant, Youth Franchise Coalition..-- 58 Goldwater, Hon. Barry, U.S. Senator from the State of Arizona Gonzales, Mr. Charles, president of Student National Education Association -

95 Hayakawa, Dr. S. I., president, San Francisco State College

36 Justice Department

78, 233 Kennedy, Hon. Edward M., U.S. Senator from the State of Massachusetts..

155 Kleindienst, Deputy Attorney General Richard, Justice Department.

78 Lowenstein, Hon. Allard, U.S. Representative from the State of New York. 114 Lumley, John, assistant executive secretary for legislative and federal relations, National Education Association...

92 MacGowan, Ian, executive director, Youth Franchise Coalition.

43 Mead, Dr. Margaret, professor of anthropology, Columbia University --- 222 Megel, Mr. Carl J., director of legislation, American Federation of Teachers -

124 Menninger, Dr. W. Walter, member National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence..

21 National Association for the Advancement of Colored People.

150, 152 National Businessmen's Council..

120 National Education Association

92 Pollak, Dean Louis, Yale Law School, New Haven, Conn..

249 Queen, Miss Philomena, youth regional chairman, Middle Atlantic re

gion of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. 152 Railsback, Hon. Tom, U.S. Representative from the State of Illinois ---- 203 Randolph, Hon. Jennings, U.S. Senator from the State of West Virginia.. 3 Rehnquist, Assistant Attorney General, Justice Department

233 Sorensen, Mr. Theodore, former Special Counsel to President Kennedy - 15 Speiser, Mr. Lawrence, director, Washington office, American Civil Liberties Union..

273 Springer, Private Gerald, U.S. Army Reserve at Fort Knox, Ky--- 111 Wideman, Clark W., Midwest consultant for Youth Franchise Coalition,

former director of Ohio referendum. Youth Franchise Coalition, Inc.----

43, 48, 58

48

281 282

119

STATEMENTS FOR THE RECORD
Butt, Mr. Thomas F., chancellor and probate judge of 13th Chancery

Circuit of the State of Arkansas..
Chamberlain, Mr. Warren, State Representative from Minnesota.
Chiswell, Jim, director, Washington Legislative Bureau of Citizens for

Vote 18.--
Corbitt, Mr. J. Elliott, Board of Christian Social Concerns of the United

Methodist Church..
Gahringer, Mr. Robert E., Deering, N.H.
Hart, Hon. Philip A., U.S. Senator from the State of Michigan.
Marsh, Bruce J., executive director, Citizens for Vote 18.
Montoya, Hon. Joseph M., U.S. Senator from the State of New Mexico..
Musser, Virgil L., president, Wooster (Ohio) College Alumni Association..
National Council of Churches of Christ in the United States, Washington,

D.C.
Pell, Hon. Claiborne, U.S. Senator from the State of Rhode Island.
Riegle, Mr. Donald W., Jr., U.S. Representative from the State of Michi-

gan.

286 287 294 118 295 296

297 298

299

ADDITIONAL MATERIAL

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Senate Joint Resolution 147..
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service "Age At Which Minors

Are To Be Considered as Adults for Purposes of Prosecution Under the

Criminal Law."
Wheeling (West Virginia) Intelligencer, February 12, 1970, "Grown Up.'
The Martinsburg (West Virginia) Journal, August 16, 1969, “18 Year Old

Vote Needed.'
John, Herbers, "Analysis of Student Protests Finds Most Nonviolent,

With New Left a Minor Factor,” The New York Times, January 14,
1970.-

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48 62

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63 64 67 68

69 140 170

170

174

178

207 221

303

311 324

325

Ohio County Analysis, 1969 State Issue No. 1 (Constitutional amendment

to lower the voting age)
How Interested Are 18- 20-Year-Olds in a Lower Voting Age?
Effects of the 18-Year-Old Vote As Reported by Social Studies Teachers in

Georgia and Kentucky--
Analysis of Voter Participation Among Youths 18-21 in 1968.
Statistics by Age-1968 Population..
Provisional Estimates of Population for States: July 1968.
Distribution of 18-20-Year-Olds in Military; and U.S. Casualties in South-

east Asia...
Appendix to Senator Goldwater's testimony
Increase in Voting Population by Lowering Voting Age to 21.
Prof. Paul A. Freund, "The Student Generation and Social Regeneration,'

June 9, 1968.
Prof. Archibald Cox, statement before the Subcommittee on Consti-

tutional Rights, February 24, 1970.-
Prof. Archibald Cox, “The Supreme Court 1965 Term,” Harvard Law

Review, Vol. 91 (1966)
Congressman William E. Brock, “Congress Looks at the Campus: The

Brock Report on Student Unrest,” Congressional Record, June 25,

1969...
Biography of Margaret Mead.
National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, Interim

Statement on Campus Disorder, June 9, 1969
National Commission on the Causes and Prevention of Violence, Statement

on Challenging Our Youth, November, 1969.-
Title III of Public Law 91-285, Voting Rights Act Amendment of 1970-
Department of Justice, Memorandum of the Constitutional Bases for Pro-

posed Voting Rights Amendments of 1969..
Department of Justice, Memorandum on the Constitutional Basis for Res-

idency Provisions of the "Voting Rights Act Amendments of 1970..
Katzenbach v. Morgan, 384 U.S. 641 (1966)
Letters to the Editor, New York Times -
Prof. Paul A. Freund, Letter to Senator Mansfield, March 5, 1970-
Nixon Speaks Out, excerpts from speeches, 1968 presidential campaign..
The White House, Letter From the President to Speaker McCormack,

Majority Leader Albert, and Minority Leader Ford, April 27, 1970-
Senator Edward M. Kennedy, Statement in Response to President Nixon's

Letter, April 27, 1970.--
Prof. Richard P. Claude, “Nationalization of the Electoral Process.”
"The Right to Vote at 18," Bruce K. Chapman, Trial Magazine, February/

March, 1970..
American Jewish Committee, “A Program Proposal for the Bicentennial

Commission: 100 Million Voters by 1976."
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, "Lowering the Voting

Age: A Bibliography.'
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, "Power of Congress

Under Constitutional Art. 1, Sec. 4 To Set Age Limitations To Vote.
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, “State Laws Setting

Minimum Age At 18 Years or Younger.".
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, "Supreme Court

Opinions re Voting Qualifications.".
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, “Unconstitutionality

of Congressional Statutory Enactment of a Uniform Voting Age of 18
Pursuant to Sections 1 and 5 of Amendment Fourteen.”
Library of Congress, Legislative Reference Service, “Fifty-State Survey of

Minimum Ages for Voting, Driving, Drinking, Smoking, Making Con-
tracts, Making Wills, and Maximum Ages for Appointment of Guardian

Ad Litem."
Puishes v. Mann, Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals..
WMCA Vote al 18 Club v. Board of Election, U.S. District Court, South-

ern District of New York
Youth Franchise Coalition, State-by-State Rundown, January, 1970-
The Association of the Bar of the City of New York, "Statutory Reduction

of the Voting Age.”.

328 332 363 364 367

386

390 395

425

428

433

456

485

488

499

507 509

561 607

620

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