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America a bale of cotton was still alive, that the person to whom it was consigned at Liverpool was still alive, and that the custom house officer at that place refused to admit it at the lower rate of duty, be. cause, to his knowledge, no cotton could be grown in America: yet that country which could grow no cotton, besides supplying her own demand, and that of all other countries, sends annually to Great Britain a quantity valued at £15,000,000 sterling."
Fourthly. The occupancy of Fernando Po,now in the possession of Spain, which commands the mouths of the Niger, and all those great streams which penetrate so deeply into the interior of central Africa. This island is situate about twenty miles from the main land, is twenty-four miles long, and sixteen broad, its centre rising into a conical volcanic mountain ten thousand feet above the level of the sea. For beauty, fertility, and salubrity, this island is said to be unsurpassed in any country. It was selected by Mr. Laird, who, for commercial purposes, proposed that at Fernando Po the government's head quarters should be fixed, because its geographical position desig. nates it as the key to Central Africa. He says, “ It is the only place upon the whole line of coast upon which hospitals, and other conve. niences, could be erected, far above the reach of the coast fever, where invalids from the naval, military, and civil establishments from all parts of the coast might recruit their health in a pure and bracing atmosphere.” Other important points are named, of which possession should be taken, particularly the locality at the confluence of the Niger and the Tchadda, a most eligible site for commercial purposes.
But without farther amplification, it will be seen that Mr. Buxton's remedy proposes the deliverance of Africa by calling forth her own
Nor does he overlook the importance of moral and reli. gious instruction, or hope for the civilization of Africa without the agency of Christianity; but relies wholly upon the latter as a remedy for the moral evils of Africa, and as the grand agent of civilization. Hence, besides requiring that the superintendents of the settlements and the colonists sent, should be of moral and religious character, and, as far as possible, of negro extraction; he invokes the aid of mission. ary societies, and looks to schools and the gospel as indispensable parts of his plan.
After naming numerous facilities for the work which are attain. able, Mr. Buxton ventures to submit a scheme for conferring on Africa intellectual advancement and true religion, the principles of which are so sound and practical that they are worthy to be recorded here. He recommends,
“1. That in every settlement formed on the views here laid down, the religious, moral, and industrial education of the natives should be considered an essential and fundamental object, claiming the early and careful attention of the founders of such settlement.
“2. That missionary societies should, by mutual agreement, subdi. vide and apportion the parts of this common field, so that each section of the Christian church may have undisturbed possession of its own sphere of labor,
“ 3. That immediate arrangements should be made by each for nor. mal schools, intended to rear not only native teachers of religion, but
native artisans, mechanics, and agriculturists, well instructed for the purpose, and themselves converts to Christianity.
54. That the African Civilization Society now being instituted shall befriend and protect all who are engaged in disseminating the truths of Christianity."
The plans of Mr. Buxton embrace therefore, first; the action of the government; and, secondly, the co-operation of individuals. The former having been before her majesty and her cabinet, has been approved, and the incipient measures are taken. The latter contemplates two associations: a benevolent society, which shall watch over and befriend the interests of Africa ; and the other, a company which shall cultivate her soil. In one sense, these are entirely separate: the object of the one is charity, of the other gain : and yet they will re. ciprocally benefit each other. It is intended, in a few months, to complete the preliminary arrangements, and put the whole in opera. tion the ensuing autumn. And should the British government and the British people promptly and judiciously carry out the scheme, it will add to the renown of the youthful queen, and attach to her reign imperishable glory, for the day of Africa's redemption will be ushered in. The God of the whole earth will smile propitiously on so benevo. lent an enterprise, and its ultimate success cannot admit of a doubt.
In so brief a survey of a work abounding in details as these volumes of Mr. Buxton, it is impossible to do more than glance, as we have done, at its leading features. But the American reader cannot fail to perceive that the American Colonization Society has anticipated Mr. Buxton in every prominent item of his entire plan. This gentleman has, indeed, earned the meed of praise for the ingenuity, skill, and benevolence with which he has elaborated the systematic operations he proposes, on a scale of enlarged magnificence and extent. Indeed, on page 153 of the second volume, American edition, he distinctly renounces all claim to any new discovery in the premises, and derives satisfaction from finding that what is with him but theory, is with others the fruit of experience.
Indeed, Mr. Buxton mentions, among the facilities found already in Africa, the colony of Liberia ; and yet his information on the subject of that colony and its numerous settlements is so scanty that he devotes to it less than half a page. He mentions a single press being there, and a newspaper, the Liberia Herald; but when his book was published there were four presses there, and two other newspapers, Africa's Luminary, at Monrovia, and another at Cape Palmas. And though there are other evidences in his work that he had access to “ Gurley's Life of Ashmun," from which he quotes, and even later colonization publications, yet he was probably deterred from saying more, out of complacency to British abolition prejudices, inspired by the misguided ravings of William Lloyd Garrison, who a few years since itinerated through England on an anti-colonization crusade.
It is worth while, however, for the friends of the American Colonization Society to be encouraged in their work by the gratifying evi. dence furnished by Mr. Buxton's book, that the great cardinal principles for which they have been contending, through evil and through good report, and for which they have suffered so much reproach and reviling from a certain party of their fellow citizens, are now adopted,
and about to be carried out to consummation, in despite of all the preconceived prejudices with which the British ear has been filled, and beneath which the British press has been groaning. And it is a still greater triumph, that this second Wilberforce, this champion of abolitionism, than whom, next to Clarkson, no man living has done more for the abolition of slavery, should project, as the remedy, and the only remedy for the African slave trade, the identical measures for the promotion of which the American Colonization Society has been appealing to heaven and earth, with the same benevolent design. When the friends of this cause have urged upon our countrymen the import. ance of planting colonies along the coast of Africa as promising the surest and speediest remedy for the slave trade, they have been an. swered by American and British abolitionists with their oft repeated motto, “ The extinction of the colonization scheme the first step toward the abolition of slavery!" But Mr. Buxton has adopted the converse of this proposition, and his motto may fitly declare, “ The first step toward the abolition both of the slave trade and slavery, is to strength. en, multiply, and perpetuate the work of colonization.” To this he has consecrated his powers, and has been instrumental in calling forth the energies of the British empire, and secured, in behalf of coloniza. tion, the treasury of a nation. And should the results be seen in the enfranchisement and salvation of a continent, posterity will do justice to the names and memory of those who founded and have sustained the colony of Liberia.
Already in that infant republic may be seen, in actual and success. ful operation, all that Mr. Buxton projects in his expanded scheme. A commanding position has been secured at Cape Mount, and still another at Cape Palmas. Factories, settlements, towns, pattern farms, school houses, churches, presses, newspapers, libraries, are all to be found flourishing there. Agricultural and commercial affairs are in rapid progress of improvement, and their marine list exhibits arrivals and departures, imports and exports, which promise to be indefinitely increased as the settlements and emigrants multiply. Already treaties have been made with numerous tribes and native kings upon the coast, and in the interior of the surrounding country, by the Liberian government, and by this means the influence of the colony is extending over the native population, thousands of whom are either legitimately trad. ing with the colonists, or employed by them in productive labor.
Slave factories have been broken up, and slavers punished, and slaves recaptured from the traders, and for a considerable extent of the coast the slave trade is banished from the vicinity of our settlements. The principles of our Liberian colonies are precisely those declared by Mr. Buxton to be fundamental, viz., “ No slavery, no monopoly, for. bearance toward the natives, and utter enmity toward the slave trade and slavery in all their forms." The cultivation of cotton, from which Mr. Buxton hopes so much, is already commenced in Liberia, and coffee, sugar, and other tropical products will soon be abundantly produced by the industry which is beginning to be manifested by the better part of our colonists.
Thus it will be seen that what Mr. Buxton projects and hopes for as the result of the combined efforts of the British people, and by the resources of the nation, has already been accomplished in our model colony, by individual enterprise and benevolence, and with but little patronage from the governments, either of the state or the nation. What he expects to effect with educated and pious men selected for the purpose wherever they can be found, has been accomplished, on a small scale, it is true, but to the astonishment of the world, with men and women who, for the most part, have toiled in slavery here, and been emancipated for the purpose, and many of them without education or other training for the work. And lastly, the views of Mr. Buxton in relation to moral and religious instruction among the natives, and the civilization of the African population by the instrumentality of Christianity, are here demonstrated. From the beginning the Bible and the gospel have been carried with our emigrants, and are now enlightening and blessing the natives, many of whom already enjoy the benefit of schools and missions, even in their native towns. The British people, then, have before them, in the success and prosperity of our colonies in Liberia, a living epistle, a literal fulfilment of all Mr. Buxton promises in his project; and just so far as the limited resources and power of the colony extend, they witness the demonstration of the certainty of his “ Remedy for the slave trade." And if so much has been done in twenty years by a handful of philanthropists, under the divine blessing vouch. safed to them, amidst clamor, obloquy, and reproach ; and this too with so narrow means, so deficient materials as emancipated and re-captured slaves, and unaided by government patronage, and obliged to defend themselves from hostile tribes and slavers, what may they not hope for, having the benefits of our experience, and the advantages which the British navy affords them in protection of life and property, as well as the blockade of the slave trade the whole length of the coast? And especially when they are to be provided with the facilities of steam navigation, by which so ready access can be had to the interior, even into central Africa, which our colonists have found wholly inaccessible for want of such facilities.
We conclude our notice in the language of Mr. Buxton, addressing his countrymen, after congratulating them upon the success of the recent emancipation of the slaves in the British West Indies.
“ A nobler achievement invites us. I believe that Great Britain can, if she will, under the favor of the Almighty, confer a blessing on the human race.
It may be, that at her bidding, a thousand nations, now steeped in wretchedness, in brutal ignorance, in devouring superstition, possessing but the one trade, and that the foulest evil that ever blighted public prosperity, or poisoned domestic peace, shall, under British tui. tion, emerge from their debasement, enjoy a long line of blessings education, agriculture, commerce, peace, industry, and the wealth that springs from it; and, far above all, shall willingly receive that religion which, while it confers innumerable temporal blessings, opens the way to an eternal futurity of happiness."
For the Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review.
REVIEW OF A TRACT ON THE ATONEMENT,
Entitled, “ Atonement for sinners is effected by the intercession of Christ, with
his own blood, in heaven.”
1. The tract bearing the above title is anonymous; nor is it indicated by whom it was written, or whether it was published by some religious association or on personal responsibility. From the imprint it was stereotyped by L. Johnson, and printed in Philadelphia, No. 6, George-street, 1837. As not the author, were he known, but his work, is the object to which the reader's attention is invited, it will be our design to introduce him to an acquaintance with the new and most singular views set forth in this doctrinal tract on that all-import. ant doctrine of which it treats. While the writer of this article and the reader may be alike unable to determine who is entitled to the honor of the authorship of this extraordinary production, or why both the author and the publisher, or society, as the case may be, who have furnished the religious community with this doctrinal treatise, have kept themselves incognito, it will be almost impossible not to discover in the sequel some points of contiguity with some doctrines, or systems of doctrine, extant, with which we are not altogether unacquainted. One thing at least seems apparent—that as the work has been stereotyped, an extended circulation was anticipated, for which it was deemed expedient to provide. This consideration alone renders it an object of no small importance with due care and scrutiny to canvass those views of the vitally important doctrine which the author of the tract professes to hold, not merely as new and original, but also as being purely Scriptural. Argument is needless to prove to the Christian the paramount importance of this capital doctrine of revealed religion, and the duty of the church to guard it from error, obscurity, and perversion, as we would the vital organs from obstruc. tion and injury. To this motive the following unpretending review is to be traced, accompanied by the writer's earnest ejaculations that all the great and eternal benefits of the atonement, Scripturally understood and embraced, may be for ever enjoyed by the reader !
2. The author of the tract proposes to "examine this subject, by showing, I. What things are preparatory to atonement. II. In what it consists. III. Where it was made ; and, IV. What are its effects." He says, “ Much light is reflected on this subject from the typical sacrifices of the old dispensation. It is an acknowledged point that there must be in the antitype something answering to every part of the type. Hence if we can ascertain what was represented, and what was ceremonially effected, by the types of the old dispensation, we shall be prepared to understand what is accomplished by the antitype, and how it is done under the new.
We have italicised the above sentence for an object which will pre. sently be indicated.
The peculiar, and, as we conceive, more than questionable features