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common use. In some very delicate constitutions, it proves even too irritating to the skin ; but, in such cases, fine fleecy hosiery will in general be easily borne, and will greatly conduce to the preservation of health. Many are in the custom of waiting till winter has fairly set in before beginning to wear flannel. This is a great error in a variable climate like ours, especially when the constitution is not robust. It is during the sudden changes from heat to cold, which are so common in autumn, before the frame has got inured to the reduction of tem. perature, that protection is most wanted, and flannel is most useful.

“ The exhalation from the skin being so constant and extensive, its bad effects, when confined, suggest another rule of conduct, viz., that of frequently changing and airing the clothes, so as to free them from every impurity. It is an excellent plan, for instance, to wear two sets of flannels, each being worn and aired by turns, on alternate days.

o When the saline and animal elements left by the perspiration are not duly removed by washing or bathing, they at last obstruct the pores and irritate the skin. And it is apparently for this reason that, in the eastern and warmer countries, where perspiration is very copious, ablution and bathing have assumed the rank and importance of reli. gious observances. Those who are in the habit of using the fleshbrush daily are at first surprised at the quantity of white dry scurf which it brings off; and those who take a warm bath for half an hour at long intervals cannot fail to have noticed the great amount of im. purities which it removed, and the grateful feeling of confort which its use imparts. The warm, tepid, cold, or shower bath, as a means of preserving health, ought to be in as common use as a change of apparel, for it is equally a measure of necessary cleanliness. Many, no doubt, neglect this, and enjoy health notwithstanding ; but many, very many, suffer from its omission; and even the former would be benefited by employing it. The perception of this truth is gradually extending, and baths are now to be found in fifty places for one in which they could be obtained twenty years ago. Even yet, however, we are far behind our continental neighbors in this respect. They justly consider the bath as a necessary of life, while we still regard it as a luxury.

“ But when the constitution is not sufficiently vigorous to secure reaction after the cold bath, as indicated by a warm glow over the surface, its use inevitably does harm. Numbers are in this condition, but there are few indeed who do not derive evident advantage from the regular use of the tepid bath.”

After recommending friction in addition to the use of the bath, our author thus proceeds :

“ Few of those who have steadiness enough to keep up the action of the skin by the above means, and to avoid strong exciting causes, will ever suffer from colds, sore throats, or similar complaints; while, as a means of restoring health, they are often incalculably serviceable. If one-tenth of the persevering attention and labor bestowed to so much purpose in rubbing down and currying the skins of horses were bestowed by the human race in keeping themselves in good condition, and a little attention were paid to diet and clothing, --colds, nervous diseases, and stomach complaints would cease to form so large an item in the catalogue of human miseries,”

Our extracts have been confined chiefly to the first part of the volume before us, and to a small number of the subjects treated by our author. Did our limits allow, we should be pleased to present the reader with farther specimens of the good sense and sound philosophy which pervade the entire volume. But enough have been given already, as we would humbly hope, to induce those who may not have seen it, to purchase and peruse it without delay.

For the Methodist Magazine and Quarterly Review.

REVIEW OF DR. MACKNIGHT'S DOCTRINE OF THE RESURRECTION.

CHRISTIANITY presents an unrivaled claim upon the most solemn attention, and the universal suffrage of mankind. While this claim has been rejected by some, it has been acknowledged by more, and that by men who neither would nor could knowingly deceive them. selves or others on a question where so much is involved in the point at issue, both to themselves and others, that greater interests and consequences more momentous are not conceivable. And it must be conceded that this suffrage has been given to Christianity, or revealed religion, by men the best qualified to decide upon the merits of its claims to divine originality, and the adequacy and validity of the several classes of argument on which such divine originality has been predicated. Not designing to institute an inquiry into the nature and cogency of the internal, external, and collateral branches of evidence usually adduced in support of Christianity—this ground having been so frequently and so amply occupied by master spirits of the past and present ages, and that, too, to the complete satisfaction of the honest inquirer after truth ; it may, notwithstanding, be worthy of remark, that two important considerations urge themselves upon our attention connected with the paramount claims of Christianity to divine origin; especially, standing as they do on grounds mostly if not altogether independent of those arguments or sources of argument by which the truth of this immensely important question has been decided.

The first consideration referred to is, that Christianity is the last system of religion that can be proposed to the understanding, the faith, and the hopes of man. What can be conceived, what can be invented, which has not in some form, at some time, and by some mind or by kindred minds, been proposed to the acceptance of mankind ? Heathenism, Judaism, Mohammedanism, atheism, and the various forms of infidelity, are identified with the world's history. To these may be added a corrupt Christianity, made up, like the eclectic philosophy, of detachments from most other systems, constituting a mixed system, in which, viewing it as a whole, it is not easy to determine whether heterogeneousness or homogeneousness, consistency or discordancy, has the preponderance. And yet, passing strange as it may appear, its advocates not only claim apostolicity, but infallibility and immu. tability in its favor! Little therefore remains to be done in the for. mation of new systems of religion in future, but to revive or remodel the old, or to take separate detachments from several and form them

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into new, living combinations. Or else we must fall back at once to the well-authenticated Scriptural system, holding it pure and unincumbered as it originally came from the hands of its divine Author.

The perfection of this system constitutes the second consideration referred to. With adequate knowledge of the system, as far as the human understanding is capable of judging relative to its perfection, it will be manifest on a moment's reflection. What, then, is necessarily involved in the perfection of a system of revealed religion, using the term perfection in its ordinary acceptation ? Must it not at least maintain on the one hand, the purity, veracity, holiness, honor, and benevolence, in a word, all the perfections of the peerless cha. racter of its supreme Author, making him—

God, o'er all consummate, absolute,
Full orbed, in his whole round of rays complete :
Not setting at odds Heaven's jarring attributes,

And with one excellence, another wound.” And on the other hand it must adequately provide for all the wants and necessities, moral, intellectual, and physical, present and eternal, embracing all that can possibly be comprised in the present relations, state of guilt and destitution, the future hopes and interests of beings possessed of attributes and endowments such as those which belong to

If it secure and maintain all these important objects, its perfection cannot for a moment be called in question. But could it be shown that any principle, doctrine, or precept, essential to the actual condition, character, and relations of the race of intelligences for whom it is specially designed, is defective, entirely wanting, or superfluous, its perfection, symmetry, and beauty would be manifestly im. paired. It must not only take man as he is, a moral, intellectual, responsible, though fallen being; but it must account for his fall into his present enthralled condition, instruct us how he became surrounded by his embarrassing circumstances, and how he became possessed of such a morally depraved character, as well as provide for the recovery of his forfeited character, and the attainment of future and eternal felicity. And moreover, it is essential to the perfection of such religious system that it not only admit and presuppose a state of final retribution, but provide it alike for those who, after all that has been or shall be done for them, may be the subjects of ultimate guilt and condemnation, as for those who shall be the subjects of eternal rewards. Viewed in this light, the essential elements of the system may be compressed into a very narrow compass, and its cardinal doc. trines be reduced to a comparatively brief summary ; while at the same time these elemental principles and cardinal doctrines will admit of varied and almost endless combinations. But in tracing out these principles, and in applying these doctrines, we cannot be too cautious not to overstep the clearly defined precincts laid down in the “ lively oracles,” which were given us as the criterion of our faith, the rule of our conduct, and the foundation of our future hopes.

Among these cardinal doctrines, forming as it were so many links in the golden chain of revealed truth, the doctrine of the general resurrection is one of the most important, connected equally with the foregoing and the succeeding. And while this doctrine holds a distinguished prominence aniong other kindred Scriptural doctrines, no one is farther removed from the misguided, humanly invented systems of religion, which have sprung up in the heathen world. It is most emphatically a doctrine purely of divine revelation. It is found nowhere out of that system. It was never incorporated into any of the systems of heathen mythology, morality, or religion ; hence it was never employed, in theory or practice, to inspire their hopes or to alarm their fears. It furnished them with no incentive to virtue or preventive to vice. With common consent, therefore, it has been left to Christianity to bring life and immortality to light.” The nearest approach to any thing having the least resemblance to this sublime doctrine, if indeed as an approximation it should be regarded, is the Pythagorean doctrine of metempsychosis or transmigration of souls. According to this doctrine, it is true, the soul is again reimbodied after death; but never in the same body in which it before resided. That tenement of the soul when it once fell and was dissolved was to be rebuilt no more for ever. Death held a universal and unresisted dominion over the dead of every species; and that dominion was eternal. The conception that our vile, disorganized bodies shall ever be raised and refashioned " like Christ's glorious body," as Christianity triumphantly teaches, occupies a height and a sublimity to which the unassisted human understanding, faith, and hopes never could attain. And if the soul were again reimbodied according to the Pythagorean doctrine, for purposes of reward or punishment, both were gross and sensual, not pure, spiritual, and eternal, like those held forth in the Scriptural doctrine of the resurrection and subsequent retribution.

Begging the reader's pardon for having detained him so long in these preliminary remarks, let us hasten to the special object of this article.

There is an important question involved in the doctrine of the general resurrection, viewed in connection with final retribution, pertaining to the quality or nature of the future bodies of the wicked. This question, it is believed, was first started and advocated in modern times by Dr. James Macknight, who was a profound scholar, and an eminent Scotch divine of the last century. His peculiar views are found in his work on the apostolical epistles, in his notes on 1 Thess. iv, 16. The peculiar doctrine of this truly eminent divine, when reduced to a simple question, amounts to this :-Will the bodies of the wicked in the resurrection possess the same nature or qualities as those of the righteous ? And will those who shall be found alive in that day be changedas well as the righteous ? The learned doctor takes the negative on both these questions. On the contrary, the affirmative is maintained, we believe, by divines and Christians generally. The questions on which this commentator has joined issue, it must be acceded are of vast importance to every believer in Christianity, as well as every public teacher of religion. And, moreover, they are those which cannot be settled by mere human reasoning, authority, or speculation, however discriminating, commanding, or sagaciousthe appeal must ultimately be made to the law and to the testimony.” And if any speak not according to these, it is because “ there is no light in them.”

The reader shall hear Dr. M. in hiş, own words, and then he will

doctor says:

be prepared to bring the doctrine in question to the infallible criterion of divine revelation, and determine its correctness for himself. The

“ In this passage, the apostle teaches that the dead in Christ shall be raised before the living are changed: for we are told expressly, ver. 15, that the living who remain at the coming of Christ shall not anticipate them who are asleep in Jesus.' He teaches likewise, if I am not mistaken, that the dead in Christ shall be raised before any of the wicked are raised ; and that they shall arise with glorious, immortal, and incorruptible bodies; while the wicked shall be raised with bodies mortal and corruptible, like those in which they died ; consequently, that no change is to be made in the bodies of the wicked who are found alive at the coming of Christ. At least these things seem to be taught, 1 Cor. xv, 22: As by Adam all die, so also by Christ all shall be made alive. But every man in his own proper band.' The righteous all in one band, the wicked in another. And ver. 48, · As the earthy man Adam was, such also the earthy or wicked man shall be. At the resurrection they shall be earthy and mortal like Adam, so I translate and interpret the passage, on account of what is affirmed in the following verse 49 : And as the heavenly man Christ is, such also the heavenly man (the righteous) shall be at the resurrection. They shall be heavenly and immortal, like Christ, ver. 49, * For as we heavenly men have borne the image of the earthy man, we shall also bear the image of the heavenly;' which I think implies that the earthy men, the wicked, are not to bear the image of the heavenly. See 1 Cor. xv, 48, note.

“But, because to many, who cannot lay aside their carly prejudices, it may appear an opinion not sufficiently supported by the texts I have quoted, that the wicked shall be raised from the dead with fleshly, mortal, corruptible bodies, like those in which they died; and that no change is to pass on the bodies of such of them as are found alive on the earth at Christ's coming, farther proofs, perhaps, will be thought necessary to establish these points. I, therefore, lay before the reader the following considerations for that purpose, and hope they will be attended to by him with due candor :

“1. It is nowhere said in Scripture, nor insinuated, that the wicked shall be raised with glorious, immortal, and incorruptible bodies. On the contrary, all the passages in which incorruptible and immortal bodies are promised, or spoken of, evidently relate to the righteous alone. Thus, when the apostle Paul, speaking of Christ, says, Phil. iii, 21, .Who will refashion our humbled body, that it may become of form like his glorious body,' it is the body of those only. whose conversation is in heaven,' ver. 20, which shall be thus refashioned. In like manner, what is written of the resurrection of the dead, and of the glory, spirituality, and incorruptibility of their bodies, and of the changing of the living, 1 Cor. xv, 42–44, is not to be understood of the wicked, but of them who are Christ's at his coming,' ver. 23, and who are to `inherit the kingdom of God,' ver. 50, as indeed the whole of the reasoning in that chapter likewise clearly evinces. Farther, though there shall be a resurrection both of the just and the unjust, only they that be wise shall shine as the brightness of the firmament, and they that turn many to righteousness, as the stars for ever and

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