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underwent the persecutions referred to in the epistle. Upon the whole, then, persecutions at the several cities named in the epistle are expressly recorded in the Acts and Timothy's knowledge of this part of St. Paul's history, which knowledge is appealed to in the epistle, is fairly deduced from the place of his abode, and the time of his conversion. It may farther be observed, that it is probable from this account, that St. Paul was in the must that St. Paul was in the midst of those of those persecutions when Timothy became known to him. wonder then that the apostle, though in a letter written long afterwards, should remind his favourite convert of those scenes of affliction and distress under which they first met.

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Although this coincidence, as to the names of the cities, be more specific and direct than many which we have pointed out, yet I apprehend there is just reason for thinking it to be artificial for had the writer of the epistle sought a coincidence, with the history upon this head, and searched the Acts of he Apostles for the purpose, I conceive he would have sent us at once to Philippi and Thessalonica, where Paul suffered persecution, and where, from what is stated, it may easily be gathered that Timothy accompanied him, rather than have appealed to persecutions as known to Timothy, in the account oft which persecutions, Timothy's presence is not mentioned ; it not being till after one entire chapter, and in the history of a journeyothree years future to this, thats Timothy's anamel occurs in the Acts of the Apostles for the first time in noitsitev s zi 919dt

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Κρητες αει ψευσται, κακα θηρία, γαστέρες αρχαι.

"I call this quotation characteristic, because no writer in the New Testament, except St. Paul, appealed to heathen testimony'; and because St. Paul repeatedly did so. In his celebrated speech at Athens, so!! preserved in the seventeenth te of the Acts, he

tells his audience, that in God, we live, and move, and have our being; as certain also of your own poets to have said, For we are also his offspring." 01979dw has for

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9 The reader will perceive much similarity of manneroins these two passages. The reference in the speech is to a heathen poet; it is the same in the epistle! In the speechs the apostle urges: his hearers with the authority of a poet of their own; in the epistle he avails himself of the same advantage. Yet there is a variation, which shows that the hint of inserting a quotation in the epistle was not, as it may be suspected, borrowed from seeing the like practice

attributed to St. Paul in the history, and it is this,

that in the epistle the author
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a prophet, their own.

one of themselves, Whatever might be the reason for calling Epimenides a prophet; whether the names of poet and prophet were occasionally convertible; whether Epimenides in particular had obtained that title, as Grotius seems to have proved; or whether the appellation was given to him, in this instance, as having delivered a description of the Cretan character, which the future state of morals among them, verified : whatever was the reason (and any of these reasons will account for the variation, supposing St. Paul to have been the author), one point is plain, namely, if the epistle had been forged, and the author had inserted a quotation in it merely from having seen an example of the same kind in a speech ascribed to St. Paul, he would so far have imitated his original, as to have introduced his quotation in the same manner; that is, he would have given to Epimenides the title which he saw there given to Aratus. The other side of the alternative is, that the history took the hint from the epistle. But that the author of the Acts of the Apostles had not the Epistle to Titus before him, at least that he did not use it as one of the documents or materials of his narrative, is rendered nearly certain by the observation that the name of Titus does not once occur in his book.

his book It is well known, and was remarked by St. Jerome, that the apophthegm in the fifteenth chapter of the Corinthians, "Evil communications corrupt good manners," is an iambic of Menander's:

Φθείρουσιν ήθη χρησθ' ὁμιλίαι κακαι.

Here we have another unaffected instance of the same turn and habit of composition. Probably there are some hitherto unnoticed; and more, which the loss of the original authors renders impossible to be now ascertained.

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There exists a visible affinity between the Epistle to Titus and the First Epistle to Timothy. Both letter's were addressed to persons left by the writer to preside in their respective churches during his absence. Both letters are principally occupied in describing the qualifications to be sought for, in those whom they should appoint to offices in the church; and the ingredients of this description are in both letters nearly the same. Timothy and Titus are likewise cautioned against the same prevailing corruptions, and in particular, against the same misdirection of their cares and studies. This affinity obtains, not only in the subject of the letters, which, from the similarity of situation in the persons to whom they were addressed, might be expected to be somewhat'alike, but extends, in a great variety of instances, to the phrases and expressions. The writer accosts his two friends with the same salutation, and passes on to the business of his letter by the same transition. 324 1 399 yli ber >

"Unto Timothy, my own son in the faith? Grace, mercy, and peace from God our Father and Jesus Christ our Lord. As I besought thee to abide still at Ephesus,' when I went into Macedonia," &c. 1 Tim. chap. i. 2, 3.

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Hi To Titus, mine own son after the common faith: Grace, mercy, and peace, from God the Father, and the Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. For this cause let thee in Crete." Tit. chaprisiþau 9m82 9 i If Timothy was not to give heed to fables and endless genealogies, which minister questions," (1 Tim. chapo in 4.) Titus also was to "avoid foolish questions, and genealogies, and contentions," (chap. iii. 9.) and was to "rebuke them sharply, not going heed to Jewish fables." (chap. i. 14.) If Timothy was to be a pattern, (ruwos) (1 Tim. chap. ivo 12.) oso was Titus (chap. ii. 7.) If Timothy was to "let no man despise his youth," (1 Tim. chap. iv. 12.) Titus also was to "let no man despise him," (chap. ii. 15.) This verbal consent is also observable in some very peculiar expressions, which have no relation to the particular character of Timothy or Titus. The phrase," it is a faithful saying," (TOS Ayos (πιστος ὁ λόγος made use of to preface some sentence upon which the writer lays a more than ordinary stress, occurs three times in the First Epistle to Timothy, once in the Second, and once in the epistle before us, and in no other part of St. Paul's writings; and it is remarkable that these three epistles were probably all written towards the conclusion of his life; and that they are the only epistles which were written after his first imprisonment at Rome.


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The same observation belongs to another singularity of expression, and that is in the epithet " sound," (yay) as applied to words or doctrine. It is thus used, twice in the First Epistle to Timothy, twice in the Second, and three times in the Epistle to Titus, beside two cognate expressions, ύγιαίνοντας τη πίστει, and

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